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How long has it been since the ice age?

We are in an ice age intermission right now.  For the last 2 million years, we have been living in an ice age.  Right now we are in a longer intermission, but in 50,000 years the ice is expected to be back.  It has been 100,000 years when this intermission began.  So the expected total intermission will be 150,000 years.


How many ingredients are needed to create a universe?

  • 3 Ingredients needed to make a universe.  1:  Mass (Matter). 2: Energy  and 3: Space.
  • Einstein’s E=MC squared proves that mass and energy are the same, like heads and tails on a coin.  In fact, E=MC squared proves you really only need two ingredients to create a universe since mass and energy are the same.  So now you only need mass and space. 
  • An analogy  would be to make a hill of dirt.  To make a hill, you must create a hole at the same time.  Hill is mass/energy.  The law of nature.  Hole is space (empty)  requires the checksum to be zero.  Same principle happened with big bang.  All this mass (stars and planets) came out of nothing.  Since we have all this mass we must have empty space for checksum to be zero. 


How large is the Milky Way?

  • The milky way.  100,000 light years across.  Just in the visible universe we can see now there are over 170 billion milky way galaxies.


Is flying safer than driving your car?

Flying is 65 times safer than driving a car.  Every minute of the day, 300,000 people are in the air flying somewhere.


When is the best day to fly, price wise?

Airline tickets:  Best time to purchase airline tickets is Tuesday after 3 pm.  Cheapest is 90 days in advance.  Tues, Wed, Sat is cheapest fly day.  Most expensive day is Sunday. 


How far do we travel with the Earth everyday?

Every Year?

Ref:  Orbit/Netflix

In our orbit around the Sun, we travel 100,000 Kilometers each day.

Annually, we travel 940 million Kilometers.


What makes a hurricane?


What makes a hurricane spin?


Hurricane spin is created from the spin of the Earth.

To make a hurricane:

  1. Warm water heats the air.
  2. Warm air rises.
  3. The air pressure drops and brings up even more air.
  4. The Earth's rotation starts the hurricane spinning.


What is the Coriolis effect?

Coriolis effect:

  1. Caused by spinning of Earth.
  2. North Hemisphere will spin to the right.
  3. South hemisphere will spin to the left.
  4. This forms the trade winds that early ships with sails used as energy to move.
  5. It explains why our thunderstorms travel West to East in North America.


The Dinosaurs lived over 100,000 years before they were wiped out.

They were the rulers of our planet 20 times longer than our recorded history covers.

What killed them?


Ref:  Orbit

CHICXULUB, a meteorite in Mexico caused the extinction of the Dinosaurs.

The Chicxulub crater was caused by an Asteroid or comet with a 6 mile diameter.  The crater hit the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico.

This is called the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event, around 66 million years ago.  This event immediately wiped out 75% of plant and animal species on Earth.

The crater is 110 miles in diameter and 12 miles deep!

It was discovered in an oil exploration circa 1979.


In Belize, there are under water caves with Stalagtites.  Stalagtites must drip to grow.  How can it drip to create Stalagtites underwater?

Ref: Orbit.

Stalagtites cannot drip to form underwater.  This is empirical evidence that the sea levels were much lower thousands of years ago during the ice age.


Why do we have cycles of ice ages?

Some references state that glaciers were at one time a hundred miles thick, but today the thickest we can see is the Taku Blacier in Alaska.  It is 36 miles long and 4,845 feet thick!

Our last ice age was 20,000 years ago.  These conditions must be just right to make Northern summers cooler enough that the ice will not all melt, so then year after year the summer ice adds layer after layer hundreds of meters high in the summer.


  1. Earth's orbit varies, caused by gravity of other planets.
  2. The tilt of Earth varies from current 23.4 degrees down to 22 degrees at the flatter tilt, the planet gets much colder.
  3. Earth's orbit is elliptical.  The orbit changes to more elliptic then back to less elliptic.  When it is the most elliptic and the other two conditions are correct for ice age, then the Earth will have another ice age. 

60,000 years from now there will be another ice age.