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Flashcards in Spacetime 2 Deck (16)
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1

How long ago did live begin on Earth?

Our tree of life is 3.5 billion years old.  There are millions of animal species, most of which mankind has not yet discovered.

2

What wiped out 90% of early life on Earth?

The Permian extinction.  9/10 of life died.  Volcanos erupted to the size of Europe.  Coal deposits caught on fire everywhere.  The air and waters became poisonous.  It took 10 million years for life to bounce back.  Dinosaurs were the big winners.  They prospered for 150 million years.  Then they fell prey also.

3

What is the lag time for the Sun and stars we see in the sky?

The Sun on horizon is a mirage.  Upon first sunrise the curvature of Earth bends light waves so we see the sun come up before it is visible by eight minutes.  Even later the Sun is eight minutes ahead of the visible image.  Closest star is 4 years ahead of its image.  Some stars are like 10,000 light years ahead of the image we see in the sky. 

4

What are ghost stars?

Many of the stars you see in the night sky have moved away or died thousands of years ago, but you are seeing the image of these stars right now.  These are called ghost stars.   Think about that next time you star gaze.  Most of them are not there anymore.  They either moved or died.

5

Could our spacecraft travel to our nearest star, other than the Sun?

The space shuttle traveled 24,000 MPH.  Voyager (because of a gravity boost) travels 56,000 kilometers per hour.  It would take 80,000 years for Voyager to reach our nearest star! 

13.4 Billion Galaxy light is oldest light we can see.  

Trivia:  There are more atoms in your eye than stars in the universe. 

There are more planets than stars. 

6

How old is the Earth?

The Earth is 4.5 billion years old.

According to the Bible the Universe including Earth was created in 4004 BCE.  This is incorrect.  We could not see most of our Milky Way galaxy if the Universe was only 6,000 years old.  There is not enough time for the distance star light to reach Earth.  If Earth was 6,000 years old, even using the Hubble telescope, we would not be able to see other galaxies!  For example, the Crab Nebula light takes over 6,500 years to reach us traveling at the speed of light, yet we can see stars and galaxies that are millions and millions of light years away from us.  We can see Nebulas that are over 50,000 light years wide!  Light speed is only one proof.  There are many others, like geology.  Pick the Grand Canyon.  Geologists date the Grand Canyon at 6,000,000 years old, but the Colorado River that cut the Grand Canyon dates back to 70 million years.  The Grand Canyon Bright Angel Shale was formed 530 million years ago.

7

How old is the light we get everyday from our Sun?

Feel the energy from the Sun on your face.  The energy that warms you began its journey some 10 million years ago in the core of the Sun.  It takes this long for the Photons to battle their way from the core of the Sun to the surface.  It takes this long because of all the colliding atoms the Photons must battle through to reach the surface.  After the photon reaches the surface, they travel to the Earth in 8 minutes!  The light these Photons produce is 10 million years old.

Our Milky Way galaxy is over 10 Billion years old and it is 100,000 light years across.  Since we can see our entire Milky Way galaxy from Earth (using telescopes), it proves we are receiving those photons (visible light)  that took a minimum of 100,000 years to become visible light on Earth.  This fact by itself proves the Earth is many times older than the Bible says it is.

8

How do scientists know what chemicals are on distant planets and stars?

In the spectrum of light, each color band is separated by a dark border line.  This dark border is the signature of what types of atoms (combined to form molecules) are in the beam of light you are viewing.  This is how scientists can tell what chemicals are on distant planets, moons and stars.

9

What type of atoms is the human body mostly comprised?

All things are made of atoms, but all living things have huge amounts of carbon atoms.  A carbon atom can make extremely complex molecules.  These complex carbon based molecules we call protein.  This is what separates inanimate objects from animate objects.

Now when you touch something, your atoms never touch the object.  What you feel is your force field repelling from the object’s force field.  (The atom has orbiting electrons making the force field.)

10

Why do we grow old and wrinkle?

DNA is a molecule, a double helix, looks like a ladder.  The rungs of the ladder are smaller molecules. 

Ultraviolet light damages DNA.  This Ultraviolet light is what makes us age.  It destroys Collagen and makes our skin lose its elastic properties.  Our damaged DNA stops making collagen.  As a result, we wrinkle.

11

How old does the Bible say the Earth is?

October 22, 4004 BC is the time Earth started according to the Bible.  This was calculated from the start of Adam to the death of something science can measure.  In this case, it is the death of King Nebuchadnezzar. 

Geology tells us a different story with the radio-active decay rate of rocks.  [Carbon 14 dating has been proven in every instance to be correct.]  Geology tells us the Earth is 4.5 billion years old.  [Paleoanthropology tells us man has lived here 3 million years.]

12

How did lead poisoning become a factor in the decline of the Roman Empire?

Lead is a neurotoxin.  Lead Poison.  Lead poisoning was a major factor in the decline of the Roman Empire.  Many people went mad with hallucinations.   Their thinking was heavily impaired because lead at the cellular level attracts our cells to combine with it to keep life going, but lead kills the cells instead.  People go mad, people get cancers.  It is somewhat like radiation poisoning.

Back in the 1930’s, the oil companies discovered that lead in gasoline would stop the pinging (spark knock), so they added it to gasoline and formed a new corporation called the “Ethyl” corporation.  Think of all the people this poisoned, especially the gas attendants [like me].  All this lead settled in the oceans and the food supply.  People were dying from what was called natural causes, but in reality it was lead poisoning.  

When the scientist went public with this, the Ethyl Corporation tried to get him fired!  Eventually, the scientist sent documentation to congress and other world leaders and they listened.  The laws were changed.  Now we do not use lead in gasoline or in paint.  This operation and other advances in medicine brought us a large increase in our life expectancy.

The poor Romans didn’t know they were killing themselves.  They used lead in everything because it was so malleable and easy to work with.

13

Why is there so much coal, oil and natural gas deep underground?

Trees in their competition for sunlight developed a molecule (Lignin) that would enable the tree stem to become hard and support the weight of a tall tree.  Before trees, the highest plant was about waist high.  Now the planet became a world of trees.  They were everywhere and thick forest covered the earth.  This permitted new types of life that could live in the trees [later us].

Problem with Lignin, was it was very hard.  Too hard for bacteria fungi to digest.  Termites would not evolve for another 100 million years.  So the dead trees would fall to the ground but not decay.  

Dead trees piled up on the ground until mud covered them up.  Billions and billions of trees lay entombed underground for millions of years.  Eventually the trees’ wood was replaced cell by cell with minerals and the tree turned to stone and became a fossil. 

The original wood decays and returns the carbon dioxide back to Earth’s atmosphere.  Meanwhile it took the Sun’s stored energy to be entombed with it. This entombed tree turned into vast reserves of coal.  Coal still has the Sun’s energy in it and is used as a fuel for thousands of uses. 

The coal would catch fire from volcanos.  The sky darkened blocking the Sun.  Poison gases filled the atmosphere and choked life on earth.  So the planet went through many phases of searing heat then freezing cold.  The plant and animal life could not adapt this quickly and became extinct.  90% of life forms died.  This is called the Permian Extinction.

Under water giant reefs grew and prospered for millions of years.  As the tiny reef life forms died the remains sunk into the oceans’ muddy bottom and turned into oil and gas deposits.  Over time, these shells and life forms turned to stone [along with oil and gas].

Tectonic plates pushed layers below to the very top and created mountains which eroded away.  [Limestone is made from all these fossils and this is why 1/3 of Mount Everest is old sea fossils].

14

All of our energy comes from the Sun.  How does this work?

A plant absorbs energy from sun, animal eats plant to get energy, man hunts animal and eats plant and animal to gain energy (Protein).  Man and animal waste product move the energy to be a fertilizer for new plants, and the cycle repeats.

15

How can 3 molecules of Carbon Dioxide determine the temperature on earth?

Look at Venus,  full of C02 (Carbon Dioxide) atmosphere. 

Earth has 3 C02 molecules out of every 10,000 molecules in our atmosphere.  If the Earth had zero C02 molecules, it would be a frozen ball of ice.  This is just 3 molecules we are talking about!

  If Earth had double the CO2 molecules, 6/10,000, our planet would be so hot we could not stand to live here!

16

How do tree leaves make a difference in global warming?

In the spring when trees grow their leaves, the leaves drink in the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus lowering the total amount in the atmosphere. 

In the fall, the leaves fall and decay, releasing the CO2 back into the atmosphere.  This was not discovered until Charles D. Keeling, an oceanographer, measured it in 1958.  This is called respiration or breathing Earth.  It also is a concern for deforestation.  Less trees means more CO2 in the atmosphere which means global warming.