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Flashcards in Spanish II Deck (294):
1

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

around there, that way

por allí

1

Phrase: es que

The fact is....

2

ESTAR

 

(past - pretérito)

estuve

estuviste

estuvo

estuvimos

estuvisteis

estuvieron

2

POR vs PARA

 

When taking about exchange, including sales

POR

 

Model: Él me dio diez dólares por el libro

 

(He gave me ten dollars for the book)

2

Differences in use of the Definite article between talking of a person and talking to a person

The definite article is used when talking about a person, but it is not used when talking directly to a person.

 

El señor Gómez es profesor.

Señor Gómez, ¿es usted profesor?

La señorita está muy bonita.

¡Señorita! Usted está muy bonita esta noche.

2

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por ningún lado

nowhere

2

Change of meaning - preterite vs imperfect

 

Conocer

Preterite - met

Conocí a Juan hace cinco años.

I met Juan five years ago.(completed action)

 

Imperfect - knew

En aquella época conocíamos muy bien la ciudad.

At that time we knew the city very well.(no definite beginning or end)

2

Phrase:

 

¿Y eso?

Why is that?

 

Use as another option instead of ¿Por qué?

2

How to end a letter

Besos - kisses

Abrazos - hugs

Hasta pronto - See you then

Saludos - similar to english regards

3

FUTURO - Future

venir

vendré

vendrás

vendrá

vendremos

vendréis

vendrán

venir - (stem changing venir->vendr)

4

When referring to the thing you most liked or least liked with gustar

lo que más me gusta

 

lo que menos me gusta

5

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por lo tanto

consequently

5

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

separately

por separado

6

Present Progressive

estar + present participle

I am speaking (right now, at this moment)

 

Never use present progressive for something that will occur in the future

6

escoger

 

yo .....

(to choose)

 

escojo

7

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por desgracia

unfortunately

7

Present Subjunctive

 

-zar verbs

 

Example: empezar (e:ie)

z changes to c before e

(present subjunctive)

 

empiece

empieces

empiece

empecemos

empecéis

empiecen

8

How to test for when to use the imperfect tense.

Try substituting one of the following:

was/were ...ing

used to ...

would (meaning used to) ...

I worked in the agency during the day.

I was working in the agency during the day.

I visited my grandmother every day.

I used to visit my grandmother every day.

Every afternoon I took a nap.

Every afternoon I would take a nap.

9

Comparative (inequality) - affirmative and followed by number

más/menos + adjective/adverb/noun + de

9

Subject pronouns and object pronouns differences

Only the 1st person and 2nd person singular are different

 

yo     mí

tú      ti

9

poner

 

yo .....

(to put, to place)

 

pongo

9

Phrase

 

How nice/what joy

 

 

¡qué alegría!

10

POR vs PARA

 

"estar ????" means to be in the mood or inclined to do something

POR

 

Model: Estoy por tomar café

(I'm in the mood for drinking coffee)

10

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por lo visto

apparently

10

Imperfect tense

 

regular -ar

-aba

-abas

-aba

-ábamos

-abais

-aban

 

hablaba, hablabas, hablaba, hablábamos, hablabais, hablaban

10

Phrases to use when saying something is in the morning

De la mañana - use when in combination with a specific time

Por la mañana - use without specific time to mean anytime in the morning

 

Also use for tarde and noche.

11

SABER vs CONOCER

saber:  to know (facts, information, how to do something, something by heart)

 

conocer: to know(to be familiar with people, places, things)

11

ver

yo .....

(to see)

veo

11

When a verb follows a preposition

 

When a reflexive verb follows a preposition

It remains in the infinitive

It remains in the infinitive and the reflexive part changes to agree with subject and remains on end of verb:

Antes de dormirme, yo cuento burros.

Antes de dormirte, tú cuentas burros.

11

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por separado

separately

11

Preterite

 

huir

 

follows same form: (construir, contribuir, incluir)

huí

huiste

huyó

huimos

huisteis

huyeron

11

Present Subjunctive

 

Conocer

conozca

conozcas

conozca

conozcamos

conozcáis

conozcan

11

PRETÉRITO - PAST


ir

fui

fuiste

fue

fuimos

fuisteis

fueron

12

valer

 

yo .....

(to be worth)

 

valgo

13

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

caber
 

cupe

cupiste

cupo

cupimos

cupisteis

cupieron

14

PAGAR

 

(past - pretérito)

pagué

pagaste

pagó

pagamos

pagasteis

pagaron

15

When to use Object pronouns?

Use this set of pronouns to replace the noun that comes immediately after a preposition.

 

Juan habla de mí.

Juan speaks of me.

 

Hablo con ellos.

I speak with them.

 

Pablo compró un anillo para ella.

Pablo bought a ring for her.

15

Present Subjunctive

 

Verbs with irregular first persons in present indicative

 

Conocer         Tener           Salir

conozca      tenga     salga

conozcas     tengas     salgas

conozca     tenga    salga

conozcamos    tengamos    salgamos

conozcáis    tengáis    salgáis

conozcan    tengan    salgan

16

Transitive and intransitive constructions

In English, many verbs can be used transitively (with a direct object) or intransitively (without a direct object).

 

The sun dried the clothes. (transitive)

The clothes dried in the sun. (intransitive)

 

In Spanish, these intransitive constructions frequently employ the reflexive form.

 

The sun dried the clothes. (transitive)  El sol secó la ropa.

The clothes dried in the sun. (intransitive)  La ropa se secó al sol.

18

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por último

finally

18

Ver

 

(Imperfect)

veía

veías

veía

veíamos

veíais

veían

18

How to open an email

Pedro,

Hola Pedro,

Hola Sna. Rodriguez,

 

(**Note use of comma**)

18

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

inside

por dentro

19

Quedar vs Encontrarse vs Conocer

Quedar is to meet someone when it is planned

Quedar con {alguien}

Encontrarse to meet someone by accident

Encontrarse a {alguien}

Conocer is to meet someone for the first time

Conocer a {alguien}

{conocía a -> past}

{voy a conocer -> future}

20

Definite article

 

Feminine singular nouns that begin with an emphasized a or ha

Use the masculine form of the article.

el agua

el hacha

el hambre

el águila

 

Note only applies to singular form, in plural they go back to feminine:

las aguas

las hachas

21

Comparative (inequality) - negative and followed by number

no  ...... más/menos + adjective/adverb/noun + que

21

Demonstratives

 

Difference between adjective and pronoun

Adjective describes a noun

Pronoun replaces a noun

 

This book is mine. (adjective)       That book is yours.(adjective)

This (one) is mine. (pronoun)        That (one) is yours. (pronoun)

 

Juan reads this book. (adjective)      Juan lee este libro.

Juan reads this. (pronoun)              Juan lee este.

21

Compound geographic names

The definite article is always used with compound geographic names.

 

la América Central

la América del Sur

los Estados Unidos

la Gran Bretaña

21

Change of meaning - preterite vs imperfect

 

Saber

Preterite - found out

María lo supo ayer.      Maria found out yesterday.(completed action)

 

Imperfect - knew

Juan sabía que María venía.       Juan knew that Maria was coming.(no definite beginning or end)

22

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

perder

perdí

perdiste

perdió

perdimos

perdisteis

perdieron

23

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por lo general

generally

24

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

casar vs casarse con

casar - to perform a marriage ceremony

casarse con - to become married to someone

25

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por adelantado

in advance

26

Ver vs Mirar

Ver is the simple act of seeing something or someone;

to refer to watching of television, play or movie;

watching a sporting event;

anticipation of an outcome;

indicate understanding;refer to a visit with someone

 

Mirar is used: to indicate deliberating looking rather than mere seeing;

to indicate the orientation of something

27

Hablar

(Present Subjunctive)

hable

hables

hable

hablemos

habléis

hablen

28

FUTURO - FUTURE

 

vivir

viviré

vivirás

vivirá

viviremos

viviréis

vivirán

29

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por ejemplo

for example

29

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por suerte

fortunately

29

Present Subjunctive

 

Sentir

sienta

sientas

sienta

sintamos

sintáis

sientan

30

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por amor de Dios

for the love of God

31

Phrase:

pasar cosas

to have experiences, adventures

32

Present Subjunctive

 

Regular -er & -ir verbs

-a

-as

-a

-amos

-áis

-an

32

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

certainly

por cierto

34

Present Subjunctive

 

Contar

cuente

cuentes

cuente

contemos

contéis

cuenten

35

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por supuesto

of course

36

Change of meaning - preterite vs imperfect

 

Querer

Preterite - tried

María quiso comprar la casa.     Maria tried to buy the house.(completed action)

 

Imperfect - wanted

Juan quería comprar la casa.       Juan wanted to buy the house.(no definite beginning or end)

37

PODER

 

(Past - Pretérito)

pude

pudiste

pudo

pudimos

pudisteis

pudieron

37

POR vs PARA

 

in passive constructions

POR

 

Model: El libro fue escrito por Octavio Paz

(The book was written by Octavio Paz)

37

Volver a + INFINITIVE

To do something again

37

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

ir vs irse

ir - to go

 

irse - to go away, to leave

38

SER and ESTAR

 

contrasting uses

When a noun follows => use ser

When an adjective follows => decide between essence (ser) & condition (estar)

To tell where something is from => use ser

To tell where something is located right now => use estar

To tell where an event is taking place => use ser

39

Comparative (inequality) -

 

affirmative and not followed by number

más/menos + adjective/adverb/noun + que

41

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

quitar vs quitarse

quitar - to take away

quitarse - to take off

42

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por aquí

around here, this way

43

Day after tomorrow

pasado mañana

44

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

dormir vs dormirse

dormir - to sleep

 

dormirse - to fall asleep

45

traer

 

yo .....

(to bring)

 

traigo

46

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por mi parte

as for me

46

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

on other hand

por otra parte

47

POR vs PARA

 

Meaning "through", "along", "by" or "in the area of"

POR

 

Model: Andamos por el parque(We walk through the park)

47

Comparatives of inequality

más (menos) + adjective/adverb/noun + que

 

If the comparative is followed by a number, use de rather than que.

Note that when the sentence is negative, que is used even with numbers, to convey the meaning "only."

49

POR vs PARA

 

For velocity, frequency & proportion

POR

 

Model: Voy al restaurante cinco veces por semana(I go to the restaurant five times per week)

50

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por lo menos

at least

52

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por eso (2)

That's why

 

Therefore

54

QUERER

(past - pretérito)

quise

quisiste

quiso

quisimos

quisisteis

quisieron

54

POR vs PARA

 

to mean "in order to" or "for the purpose of"

PARA

 

Model: Para hacer una paella, primero dore las carnes

 

(To make a paella, first sauté the meats)

56

Qué tal

 

What situations to use this phrase in?

Can be followed by anything and doesn't need to follow grammatical rules

 

¿Qué tal el día?

¿Qué tal tu familia?

57

POR vs PARA

 

In cases of mistaken identity, or meaning "to be seen as"

POR

 

Model: Me tienen por loco

(They take me for crazy)

58

Phrase:You want to come / fancy coming?

 

** 2 variants **

¿Te apetece venir?

 

¿Quieres venir?

59

Phrase

 

That sounds familiar

Eso me suena

60

Possessive Adjectives

mi(s) -- my    mi libro/mis plumas

tu(s) -- your (fam. sing.)   tu libro/tus plumas

su(s) -- his, her, your (formal), their    su libro/sus plumas

nuestro(-a, -os, -as) -- our       nuestro libro/nuestras plumas

vuestro(-a, -os, -as) -- your (fam. pl.)    vuestro libro/vuestras plumas

61

FUTURO - Future

ir

iré

irás

irá

iremos

iréis

irán
 

63

POR vs PARA

 

To show the reason for an errand (with ir, venir, pasar, mandar, volver,and preguntar)

POR

 

Model: Paso por ti a las ocho

 

(I'll come by for you at 8 o'clock)

64

lavarse

 

to wash oneself

yo me lavo

te lavas

él/ella/usted se lava

nosotros/nosotras nos lavamos

vosotros/vosotras os laváis

ustedes/ellos/ellas se lavan

64

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

dar      hacer

di     hice

diste     hiciste

dio     hizo

dimos     hicimos

disteis     hicisteis

dieron     hicieron

66

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por casualidad

by chance

67

FUTURO - FUTURE

hacer

haré

harás

hará

haremos

haréis

harán

 

Hacer - Stem changing hacer -> har

68

Preterite:

creer

follows same form: (caer, leer, oír)

creí

creíste

creyó

creímos

creísteis

creyeron

70

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

morir vs morirse

morir - to die (abruptly, as of an accident, war, etc.)

 

morirse - to die (as from natural causes; also "to die" figuratively)

71

What/which

 

Cuál vs Qué

Use Cuál when you a picking from a number of options.

Usually Qué used without verb and before a noun

¿Qué nacionalidad?

 

Before verb use Cuál instead:

¿Cuál es tu nacionalidad?

72

Superlative structure

definite article + noun + más (menos) + adjective + de

Juan es el chico más inteligente de la clase.

John is the smartest boy in the class.

 

Bill Gates es el hombre más rico de los EEUU.

Bill Gates is the richest man in the U.S.

74

Conjugation of preterite:

 

Verbs that end in -ucir

Are irregular and conjugate as follows:producir

 

produje

produjiste

produjo

produjimos

produjisteis

produjeron

 

Also: aducir, conducir, coproducir, deducir, inducir, introducir, reducir, traducir

76

Present Subjunctive

 

Dormir

duerma

duermas

duerma

durmamos

durmáis

duerman

77

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

therefore

por eso

79

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

 

(Stem changing verbs)

e:i

servir -> sirviendo

pedir -> pidiendo

decir -> diciendo

 

o:u

dormir -> durmiendo

morir -> muriendo

poder -> pudiendo

80

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por completo

completely

81

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

palabra por palabra

word for word

82

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por todas partes

everywhere

84

Number: 101

Ciento uno

85

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por favor

please

85

FUTURO - FUTURE


jugar
 

jugaré

jugarás

jugará

jugaremos

jugaréis

jugarán



 

86

PRETÉRITO - PAST


dormir

dormí

dormiste

durmió

dormimos

dormisteis

durmieron


 

Dormir - Note change of o->u in 3rd person singular & plural forms
 

87

Phrase:

 

Changing the subject

Cambiando de tema

89

Conguation of preterite:

 

Verbs that end in -uir

Change ío to yó in él/ella/usted form

Change ieron to yeron in ellos/ellas/ustedes form

Only the Yo form gains a written accent over the letter "i", the other forms do not.

90

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

word for word

palabra por palabra

92

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

by chance

por casualidad

93

FUTURO - FUTURE


 

querer

 

querré

querrás

querrá

querremos

querréis

querrán


Querer - Stem changing querer -> querr
 

94

POR vs PARA

 

To mean "on behalf of" or "in favour of"

POR

 

Model: No voté por nadie(I didn't vote for anyone)

94

Bad / Worse / Worst

Adjective: malo (bad)

Comparative: peor (worse

)Superlative: el/la peor (the worst)

96

How you conjugate the Subjunctive verb tense

Take the "Yo" form, drop the o and then replace with the respective endings

97

POR vs PARA

 

To express gratitude or apology

POR

 

Model: Gracias por la ayuda

 

(Thanks for the help)

97

What comparative and superlative forms to use when referring to size (grande / pequeño)

Note that when referring to size, grande and pequeño follow the normal rules for comparative and superlative forms. That is, they do not use the irregular forms menor and mayor.

 

Esta casa es grande.   This house is big.

Esa casa es más grande.   That house is bigger.

Aquella casa es la más grande.  That house over there is the biggest.

99

What tense to use for how things were or what things were like?

Imperfect

Era un muchacho muy inteligente.        He was a very intelligent boy.

Era una señorita muy guapa.           She was a beautiful young lady.

Las ventanas estaban abiertas.         The windows were open.

La casa era blanca.          The house was white.

100

What tense to use for general mental state or physical sensations in the past?

Imperfect

Ramón tenía miedo de hablar en público.    Ramón was afraid to speak in public.

Yo creía que Juan podía hacerlo.       I thought that Juan could do it.

Me gustaba el coche.        I liked the car. (The car was pleasing to me.)

101

Comer

(Present Subjunctive)

coma

comas

coma

comamos

comáis

coman

102

Phrase:

 

Ojalá que sí

Hopefully so

103

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

creer

creí

creíste

creyo

creímos

creísteis

creyeron

 

Creer - Note change of i->y in 3rd person singular & plural forms

103

PRETÉRITO - PAST


poder 

pude

pudiste

pudo

pudimos

pudisteis

pudieron


Pedir - Note stem changing in 3rd person singular & plural forms

Poder - Note stem o->u throughout, and 3rd person singular isn't pudio but pudo

105

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

fortunately

por suerte

107

Formula for comparisons of equality when actions (not things) are being compared, and there is no adjective

verb + tanto + como

Sus estudiantes aprenden tanto como mis estudiantes.   (learn as much as)

Rosario cocina tanto como Josefina.    (cooks as much as)

Las naranjas cuestan tanto como las manzanas.   (cost as much as)

108

Time Expressions with "hacer"

 

Affirmative(*** 2 variants ***)

Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb

Hace un año que estudio español.  I have been studying Spanish for one year.

Hace dos años que ellas estudian inglés.  They have been studying English for two years.

or

Present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time

Estudio español desde hace un año.  I have been studying Spanish for one year.

Ellas estudian inglés desde hace dos años.  They have been studying English for two years.

109

Neither

Tampoco

 

Note: only this form,

 

NOT tampoca!

111

caer

 

yo .....

(to fall)

 

caigo

111

Present Subjunctive

 

-car and -gar verbs

 

Example: buscar / pagar

c changes to qu before e

g changes to gu before e

 

busque / pague

busques / pagues

busque / pague

busquemos / paguemos

busquéis paguéis

busquen / paguen

113

Formula for comparisons of equality with nouns

tanto(-a,-os,-as) + noun + como

 

Juan tiene tanto dinero como María.    (as much money as)

Él tiene tanta paciencia como ella.   (as much patience as)

Tiene tantos libros como ella.   (as many books as)

Tiene tantas plumas como ella.   (as many pens as)

115

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

querer

quise

quisiste

quiso

quisimos

quisisteis

quisieron

116

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

haber
 

hube

hubiste

hubo

hubimos

hubisteis

hubieron

117

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

aburrir vs aburrirse

aburrir - to bore

 

aburrirse - to be bored

118

Present Subjunctive

 

-guir

 

Example: seguir (e:i)

gu changes to g before a

 

siga

sigas

siga

sigamos

sigáis

sigan

119

POR vs PARA

 

To express cause or reason

POR

 

Model: El hombre murió por falta de agua

(The man died for lack of water)

120

500

600

700

800

900

quinientos

seiscientos

setecientos

ochocientos

novecientos

(NB: end in -as when used with feminine nouns)

120

FUTURO - Future

salir

saldré

saldrás

saldrá

saldremos

saldréis

saldrán

salir - (stem changing salir -> saldr)

121

Indicative Mood vs Subjunctive Mood

Indicative Mood - certainty and objectivity

 

Subjunctive Mood - uncertainty and subjectivity

123

Phrase:In what profesion / area do you work?

¿A qué te dedicas?

124

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por medio de

by means of

125

When is a verb reflexive?

A verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same.

I wash myself.

subject: I   /  verb: wash   /   object: myself

Since the subject and object are the same, the verb is reflexive.

I wash the car.

subject: I   /   verb: wash   /   object: car

Since the subject and object are different, the verb is not reflexive.

126

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

percent

por ciento

128

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

for now

por ahora

129

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

consequently

por lo tanto

130

POR vs PARA

 

When followed by an infinitive, to express an action that remains to be completed, use ??? + infinitive

POR

 

Model: La cena está por cocinar

(Dinner has yet to be cooked)

131

seguir

 

yo .....

(to follow)

 

sigo

133

POR vs PARA

 

For multiplication and division

POR

 

Model: Dos por dos son cuatro

 

(Two times two equals four)

134

Reflexive pronouns when there are two verbs

 

(*** 2 variants ***)

I want to see myself   

Me quiero ver

Quiero verme

 

John needs to wash his hair

Juan se necesita lavar el pelo

Juan necesita lavarse el pelo

134

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

nowhere

por ningún lado

135

Present Subjunctive -ar and -er stem-changing verbs

 

Pensar

Conjugate just like regular subjunctives (using "yo" form of the indicative) except the stem change does not occur in the nosotros/vosotros forms:

 

piense

pienses

piense

pensemos

penséis

piensen

136

POR vs PARA

 

To express an undetermined or general time, meaning "during"

POR

 

Model: Se puede ver las estrellas por la noche

(One can see the stars during the night)

138

hacer

 

yo .....

(to do, to make)

 

hago

139

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

at least

por lo menos

141

Name typical stem changing verbs o:ue

 

example: mover

muevo    movemos

mueves  movéis

mueve mueven

almorzar - to eat lunch

morir - to die

aprobar - to approve

mostrar - to show

colgar - to hang

mover - to move

contar - to count

costar - to cost

encontrar - to find

tostar - to toast

resolver - to solve

dormir - to sleep

rogar - to beg, pray

volar - to fly

envolver - to wrap

morder - to bite

sonar - to sound, ring

recordar - to remember

probar - to prove, test, sample. taste

volver - to return (from someplace)

devolver - to return (an object)

soñar (con) - to dream (about)

143

Possessive pronouns

 

Her book (el libro)

Her pen (la pluma)

Their pens (las plumas)

El suyo

La suya

Las suyas

144

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

for the love of God

por amor de Dios

145

Pretérito perfecto

 

Irregular participles

ver - visto

volver - vuelto

escribir - escrito

hacer - hecho

descubrir - descubierto

abrir - abierto

poner - puesto

decir - dicho

146

salir

 

yo .....

(to leave)

 

salgo

148

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

as for me

por mi parte

149

FUTURO - FUTURE

 

saber
 

sabré

sabrás

sabrá

sabremos

sabréis

sabrán


Saber - Stem changing saber -> sabr
 

150

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por fin

finally

151

POR vs PARA

 

To express a contrast from what is expected

PARA

 

Model: Para un niño lee muy bien(For a child, he reads very well)

152

PRETÉRITO - PAST


andar

anduve

anduviste

anduvo

anduvimos

anduvisteis

anduvieron


Andar - Stem changing and -> anduv
 

153

Vivir

(Present Subjunctive)

viva

vivas

viva

vivamos

viváis

vivan

155

POR vs PARA

 

To indicate a recipient

PARA

 

Model: Este regalo es para ti

(This gift is for you)

156

When ordinal numbers come after the noun

If the noun they refer to is royalty, a pope, or a street, they come after the noun.

 

Carlos Quinto("Quinto" comes after "Carlos" - royalty)

el quinto libro("quinto" comes before "libro")

la Calle Sexta("sexta" comes after "calle" - street)

la sexta pluma("sexta" comes before "pluma")

157

caber

 

yo .......

(to fit)

 

quepo

159

What are the six special prepositions that are followed by subject pronouns rather than object pronouns.

entre between

excepto except

incluso including

menos except

según according to

salvo except

 

Examples:

Entre tú y yo, esta comida es horrible.

Todos beben agua, incluso yo.

Según tú, la chica es bonita.

160

Phrase

 

¡qué alegría!
 

 


How nice/what joy

 

161

FUTURO - FUTURE

 

mirar
 

miraré

mirarás

mirará

miraremos

miraréis

mirarán

163

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por ahora

for now

164

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por todos lados

on all sides

165

POR vs PARA

 

To express a length of time

POR

 

Model: Yo estudié por dos horas

(I studied for two hours)

166

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por ciento

percent

167

PRETÉRITO - PAST


pedir

pedí

pediste

pidío

pedimos

pedisteis

pidieron


Pedir - Note stem changing in 3rd person singular & plural forms
 

169

POR vs PARA

 

To express a deadline or specific time

PARA

 

Model: Necesito el vestido para el lunes

(I need the dress by Monday)

170

Conjugation of preterite:

 

Verbs that end in -gar

Change g to gu (in Yo form only)

 

yo jugué

(jugar)

172

IR A + INFINITIVE

 

ACABAR A + INFINITIVE

to be going to do something

 

to have just done something

173

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

poner vs ponerse

poner - to put

ponerse - to put on

174

Conjugation of preterite:

 

Verbs that end in -zar

Change z to c (in Yo form only)

 

yo almorcé

174

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

unfortunately

por desgracia

175

Verbs that act in the same way as gustar

aburrir to bore

fascinar to be fascinating to

bastar to be sufficient

importar to be important to

caer bien (mal) to (not) suit

interesar to be interesting to

dar asco to be loathsome

molestar to be a bother

disgustar to hate something

parecer to appear to be

doler (o:ue) to be painful

picar to itch

encantar to "love" something

quedar to be left over, remain

faltar to be lacking something

volver (o:ue) loco to be crazy about

176

Phrase: Total

Use to open summary of what said

 

Total, que he llegado al trabajo

177

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

for first time

por primera vez

178

Change of meaning - preterite vs imperfect

 

Poder

Preterite - succeeded in

María pudo levantar la mesa.   Maria succeeded in lifting the table.(completed action)

 

Imperfect - was able

Juan podía participar en la manifestación.  Juan was able to participate in the demonstration.(no definite beginning or end)

180

Comparatives - referring to age

Use the irregular forms mayor and menor.

 

Juan es menor que María.       Juan is younger than Maria.

María es la mayor de la familia.          Maria is the oldest of the family.

181

PRETÉRITO - PAST

 

poner

puse

pusiste

puso

pusimos

pusisteis

pusieron

183

PRESENT PARTICIPLE

-ar

-er

-ir

ar -> ando(hablando, trabajando, estudiando)

er -> iendo(comiendo, haciendo)

ir->iendo(viviendo, escribiendo)

184

FUTURO - FUTURE

 

ver

veré

verás

verá

veremos

veréis

verán

185

Possessive Pronouns

mine

el mío / la mía / los míos / las mías

yours (familiar)

el tuyo / la tuya / los tuyos / las tuyas

yours (formal), his, hers

el suyo / la suya / los suyos / las suyas

ours

el nuestro / la nuestra / los nuestros / las nuestras

yours (familiar)

el vuestro / la vuestra / los vuestros / las vuestras

yours (formal), theirs

el suyo / la suya / los suyos / las suyas

187

Verbs always used reflexively

arrepentirse (e:ie) - to repent

atreverse a - to dare

darse cuenta de - to realize

jactarse de - to boast

quejarse de - to complain about

suicidarse - to commit suicide

188

POR vs PARA

 

estar ???? to express an action that will soon be completed

PARA

 

Model: El tren está para salir

(The train is about to leave)

189

Present Subjunctive -ger or -gir verbs

 

Example: escoger

g changes to j before a

(present subjunctive)

 

escoger

escoja

escojas

escoja

escojamos

escojáis

escojan

191

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

apparently

por lo visto

192

Ir

 

(Imperfect)

iba

ibas

iba

ibamos

ibais

iban

193

Ordinal numbers - 1st and 3rd

Primer(o/a)

Tercer(o/a)

Become primer and tercer in front of a masculine noun.

195

Time Expressions with "hacer"

 

Negative(*** 2 variants ***)

Hace + time + que + no + present tense form of the verb

Hace un año que no estudio español.  I haven't studied Spanish for a year.

Hace dos años que ellas no estudian inglés.  They haven't studied English for two years.

or

No + present tense form of the verb + desde hace + time

No estudio español desde hace un año.  I haven't studied Spanish for a year.

Ellas no estudian inglés desde hace dos años.  They haven't studied English for two years.

196

conducir

 

yo .....

(to drive)

 

conduzco

197

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

acostar vs acostarse

acostar - to put to bed

acostarse - to go to bed

199

TENER

 

(past - pretérito)

tuve

tuviste

tuvo

tuvimos

tuvisteis

tuvieron

200

What to do when you have a direct object pronoun as (lo, la, los, las) and an indirect object pronoun as (le, les)

Change the indirect object pronoun to se

 

se lo

se la

se los

se las

201

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por otra parte

on the other hand

202

SER

 

(past - pretérito)

fui

fuiste

fue

fuimos

fuisteis

fueron

203

Comparative (inequality)

 

Negative and not followed by number

no ..... más/menos + adjective/adverb/noun + que

204

Imperfect tense

 

regular -er and -ir

-ía

-ías

-ía

-íamos

-íais

-ían

 

comía, comías, comía, comíamos, comíais, comían

vivía, vivías, vivía, vivíamos, vivíais, vivían

204

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

of course

por supuesto

205

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

in advance

por adelantado

206

Noun endings indicating femininity

Nouns that end in:

-sión, -ción, -dad, -tad, -tud, -umbre

are feminine.

206

JUGAR

(past - pretérito)

jugué

jugaste

jugó

jugamos

jugasteis

jugaron

207

Formula for comparisons of equality when actions (not things) are being compared, and there is an adjective

verb + tan + adjective (masculine form) + como

 

Aquí se trabaja tan duro como ahí.(work as hard as)

El niño juega tan poco como la niña.(plays as little as)

Ellos duermen tan poco como ella.(sleep as little as)

209

DECIR

(past - pretérito)

dije

dijiste

dijo

dijimos

dijisteis

dijieron

210

Conjugation of preterite:

 

Verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, -oer

Change to in él/ella/usted form

Change ieron to yeron in ellos/ellas/ustedes form

 

The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter "i"

 

Exceptions: traer, atraer, distraer

211

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

by means of

por medio de

213

Non-comparative descriptions of age.

El niño es joven.  The boy is young.

 

El abuelo es viejo.  The grandfather is old.

215

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por dentro

inside

216

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

everywhere

por todas partes

217

PRESENT PARTICIPLE (Orthographic)

 

Changing spelling of word for some present particples so it agrees with the way it is pronounced

caer -> cayendo

creer -> creyendo

huir -> huyendo

ir -> yendo

influir -> influyendo

oir -> oyendo

traer -> trayendo

leer -> leyendo

seguir -> siguiendo

218

Good / Better / Best

Adjective: bueno (good)

Comparative: mejor (better)

Superlative: el/la mejor (best)

219

FUTURO - FUTURE

 

haber

 

habré

habrás

habrá

habremos

habréis

habrán

 

Haber - Stem changing haber -> habr
 

220

Feliz vs Contentar

Feliz suggests ultimate happy place, contentar is more appropriate for most uses

estoy contento

221

POR vs PARA

 

to show the use or purpose of a thing

PARA

 

Model: El vaso es para agua

 

(The glass is for water)

223

Uses of ESTAR

geographic or physical location

state or condition

many idiomatic expressions

progressive tenses(result of an action)

224

VER

 

(Past - pretérito)

Vi

Viste

Vio

Vimos

Visteis

Vieron

225

Ser

 

(Imperfect)

era

eras

era

éramos

erais

eran

226

Conjugation of preterite:

 

Verbs that end in -car

Change c to qu (in Yo form only)

 

yo busqué (buscar)

227

PEDIR vs PREGUNTAR

pedir: to ask (for an object or a service)

 

preguntar: to ask (a question, request information)

228

When referring to the concepts "less" or "greater"

Use the irregular forms mayor and menor.

 

El agua es de mayor importancia que la comida.    Water is more important than food.

La comida es de menor importancia que el agua.    Food is less important than water.

229

Present Subjunctive

 

Volver

vuelva

vuelvas

vuelva

volvamos

volváis

vuelvan

231

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

probar vs probarse

probar - to try, to taste

 

probarse - to try on

232

Present Subjunctive -ir stem-changing verbs

Conjugate just like regular subjunctives (using "yo" form of the indicative) except the stem change in the nosotros/vosotros forms follows these patterns:

o:ue verbs change o to u

e:ie verbs change e to i

i:e verbs change e to i

233

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

finally (2)

por fin

por último

234

VENIR

 

(Past - pretérito)

vine

viniste

vino

vinimos

vinisteis

vinieron

235

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

generally

por lo general

236

Change of meaning - preterite vs imperfect

No querer

Preterite - refused

María no quiso comprar la casa.

Maria refused to buy the house.(completed action)

Imperfect - did not want

Juan no quería comprar la casa.

Juan did not want to buy the house.(no definite beginning or end)

237

Formula for comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverb

tan + adjective (adverb) + como

 

El libro es tan bueno como la película.  (The book is as good as the movie.)

El chico es tan alto como la chica.  (The boy is as tall as the girl.)

238

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

parecer vs parecerse a

parecer - to seem

parecerse a - to resemble

239

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

negar vs negarse a

negar - to deny

negarse a - to refuse

240

Phrase

 

Eso me suena

That sounds familiar

241

Definite article

 

Countries

The definite article is used with some countries and cities, and is not used with others.

Here are some examples where it is used:

la Argentina

el Brasil

el Canadá

el Ecuador

la Florida

la Habana

la India

el Japón

el Paraguay

el Perú

el Salvador

el Uruguay

242

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

completely

por completo

243

¿Por qué....?

 

¿Para qué....?

For what reason....

 

For what purpose....

244

Possessive pronouns after the verb

 

ser

Drop the definite article:

 

El carro grande es mío.    The big car is mine.

El carro pequeño es suyo.   The small car is hers.

245

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por allí

around there, that way

246

TRAER

 

(past - pretérito)

traje

trajiste

trajo

trajimos

trajisteis

trajeron

248

I can not wait for ....

Qué ganas tengo de .....

 

Por ejemplo: Qué ganas tengo de ir de vacaciones

249

STEM CHANGING VERBS: e:ie

 

example: mentir

 

miento    mentimos

mientes    mentis

miente    mienten

acertar - to guess, get right

encender - to light, kindle

advertir - to advise, warn

entender - to understand

cerrar - to close, shut

fregar - to scrub, wash dishes

comenzar - to begin

hervir - to boil

confesar - to confess

mentir - to lie

consentir - to consent

negar - to deny

convertir - to convert

pensar (en) - to think about

defender - to defend

perder - to lose

empezar - to begin

preferir - to prefer

250

Change of meaning - preterite vs imperfect

 

Tener

Preterite - received

María tuvo una carta de su mamá.      Maria received a letter from her mom.(completed action)

 

Imperfect - used to have

Juan tenía un coche nuevo.       Juan used to have a new car.(no definite beginning or end)

251

Present Subjunctive

 

Regular -ar verbs

-e

-es

-e

-emos

-éis

-en

252

Definite article

 

Body parts, clothing or other very personal possessions.

The definite article is used when reflexive verbs are followed by body parts, clothing or other very personal possessions.

 

María se lava la cara.

Él se pone el traje.

253

POR vs PARA

 

For means of communication or transportation

POR

 

Model: Prefiero viajar por tren y hablar por teléfono

 

(I prefer to travel by train and speak to telephone)

254

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por primera vez

for first time

256

To do daily shopping vs to go shopping

hacer la compra - do daily shopping, groceries etc.

 

ir de compras - to go shopping

257

FUTURO - FUTURE

 

decir

diré

dirás

dirá

diremos

diréis

dirán

 

Decir -> irregular decir -> dir

258

saber

 

yo .....

(to know something - a fact)

 

259

How to open a letter

Querid(o/a):     (**Note use of colon**)

Querido Paulo:

260

conocer

 

yo .....

(to know, to be acquainted with)

 

conozco

261

Should you use 'y' for the first 9 numbers in a new hundred?

(i.e. 501, 502, 503 .....)

NO

 

Quinientos tres

262

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

acordar vs acordarse de

acordar - to agree

acordarse de - to remember

263

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

por cierto

certainly

264

Present Subjunctive

-uir verbs

Example: huir

add y before a

huya

huyas

huya

huyamos

huyáis

huyan

265

dirigir

 

yo .....

(to direct)

 

dirijo

265

Differing means between reflexive and non-reflexive verbs:

 

despedir vs despedirse de

despedir - to fire {sack}

 

despedirse de - to say goodbye

267

POR vs PARA

 

to indicate destination

PARA

 

El hombre salió para Madrid

(The man left for Madrid)

268

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

around here, this way

por aquí

269

Tomar vs Comer

Use tomar for ice creams, drinks etc.

 

Use comer for full meal, at restaurant, at home etc.

270

Use of "por" in idiomatic expressions

 

on all sides

por todos lados

271

Present Subjunctive

 

Pedir

pida

pidas

pida

pidamos

pidáis

pidan

273

Phrase:

 

Cambiando de tema
 

 

Changing the subject
 

274

PRETÉRITO - PAST

mover

moví

moviste

movió

movimos

movisteis

movieron

275

Quiero vs Querría

I want vs I would like

 

Querría is less direct and should be used when buying things in shops

276

¿Cuánto es? vs ¿Cuánto cuesta?

How much is it vs how much does it cost?

 

Ask es version if you are committed or/and happy to pay.

 

Ask cuesta if in doubt of whether going to buy

277

How to request someone on the phone

Ponme con - informal

 

Póngame con - formal

(when asking for someone on phone in a busines)

 

 

278

Phrase: No more

No puedo más

 

Can use in contexts like eating, drinking, dancing etc.

Can drop verb from phrase.

279

The age you are going to be

Cumplir

 

mañana cumplo 87 años - tomorrow I'm going to be 87.

280

Words for tips

(reward for service)

formal vs informal

una propina - tip, more formal places

 

un bote - tip in small intimate places, where put into tips jar

281

Bien vs Bueno

Bien goes with verb (adverb)

 

Estoy bien

Duermo bien

Como bien

 

Bueno is describing word goes with noun (adjective)

 

un café bueno

282

Phrase: In place of/instead of (2)

En vez de ....

En lugar de....

283

Phrase: To tell the truth

A decir verdad

284

Phrase: By the way

A propósito

285

Phrase: No way (3)

De ninguna manera

¡Qué va!

Ni loco

286

Phrase: Let me see

Dejame ver

287

Phrase: You don't say (tú)

No me digas

288

Phrase: Of course (3)

 ¡Cómo no!

 

Por supuesto

 

Claro que sí

289

Absolute superlatives

 

3 forms  (very, extremely, indescribably)

muy guapo
very handsome

sumamente guapo
extremely handsome

guapísimo
indescribably handsome

 

290

Unfortunately

 

2 version (1 formal, 1 standard)

Desafortunadamente - quite formal

 

Por desgracia - alternative

291

To continue with....

Seguir + gerundio

 

Me sigue gustando el café

 

Sigo viviendo allí

 

Sigo enfadado

292

Words for school

Colegio - school

instituto - college

 

escuela - not used much for school

293

To be going to do something

 

Firm plan vs intention

Voy a ir - firm plan, have tickets etc.

 

Iré - intention, but no firm plans

294

Que le vaya bien

 

(Que te vaya bien)

Goodbye

 

(literally: may it go well for you)