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Flashcards in Special Topics Deck (159):
1

Is a specialty that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body.

Radiology

2

Type of Radiology which has a main objective of producing and interpreting shadow images of internal organs of the body using x-radiation

Diagnostic Radiologist

3

An instrument that uses a penetrating electromagnetic radiation similar to light but having shorter waveleghts

X-ray Machine

4

Type of Radiology which is concerns with the treatment of ailments by the destruction of tissue with high energy radiation

Therapeutic Radiology

5

A special imaging radiology includes nuclear technique, computed axial tomography (CAT) and ultrasound

Radiologic imaging system

6

An instrument for obtaining cross sectional images in three dimensions of internal body structures.

Computerized Axial Tomograph

7

A sensitive and swift method of analyzing chemicals using very tiny samples of that chemicals

Chromatography

8

An instrument for recording the waveform of voltages developed in the brain using electrodes applied to the scalp

Echoencephalograph

9

A record produced by an electroencephalograph

Electroencephalogram

10

An instrument that provides an audible presentation of brain waves

Electroencephalophone

11

An instrument used for displaying on a cathode-ray screen the waveforms of voltages generated by various sections of the brain

Electroencephaloscope

12

An instrument for recording electric activity of the brain using electrodes placed directly on the external gray layer of the brain

Electrocorticograph

13

The branch of electrostatography in which electrostatic images are formed on an insulating medium without the aid of electromagnetic radiation

Electrography

14

An instrument that provides a continuous recording of the movements of an internal organ such as the heart

Electrokymograph

15

An instrument for recording eye movements that have been induced by electric stimulation

Electronystagmograph

16

A medical instrument used for cauterizing by using eletrically generated heat to coagulate or destroy tissues

Electrocautery

17

A diagnostic technique that uses ultrasound to produce an image of the internal structures of the heart

Echocardiography

18

A graphic record made by electrocardiograph

Electrocardiogram

19

An instrument for recording the waveforms of voltages developed in the chest and lower parts of the human body in synchronism with action of the heart

Electrocardiograph

20

The record produced by an electromyograph

Electromyogram

21

An instrument for detecting an electric charge by means of the mechanical forces exerted between electrically charged bodies

Electroscope

22

An instrument for measuring small amounts of uranium in liquids

Fluorimeter

23

Photography of an image produced on a fluorescent screen

Fluorography

24

An instrument that measures the intensity of x-rays and other radiation by measuring the intensity of the fluorescence produced

Fluoremeter

25

The use of a fluoroscope for x-ray examination

Fluoroscopy

26

A direct-reading instrument that has a graduated float whose position in a liquid is determined by the density

Hydrometer

27

An instrument that measures the humidity of the atmosphere

Hygrometer

28

Used to identify substances by their wavelengths and also the amount of infrared radiation radiation that they emit

Infrared analyzer

29

Radiography of a particular layer of a body or object

Laminography

30

A laser combined with an ophthalmoscope for directing burst of coherent light through a human eye to burn selected points on a detached retina

Laser photocoagulator

31

The application nuclear magnetic resonance in medicine which is used to visualize soft tissues of the body

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

32

Used to measure nuclear magnetic moment which is the characteristic of the magnetic behavior of specific nuclei

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

33

Used to measure the acidity or alkalinity of a solution

pH sensor

34

An instrument that indicates or records one or more functional variables of a body that may change when a person undergoes the emotional stress associated with a lie

Polygraph

35

The science of using lie detectors

Polygraphy

36

An instrument used that measures the refractive index of a liquid or solid usually by measuring the critical angle at which total reflection occurs

Refractometer

37

An instrument that analyzes by wavelength the light radiation emitted by incandescent substances

Spectroscope

38

A spectrometer that provides a permanent record of a spectrum that provides a permanent record of a spectrum of radiation

Spectrograph

39

The branch of physical science that deals with the measurement and analysis of visible, infrared and ultraviolet spectra

Spectroscopy

40

An instrument that disperses radiation into its component wavelengths and measures the magnitude of each component

Spectrometer

41

An instrument that measures transmission or apparent reflectance of visible light as a function of wavelength

Spectrophotometer

42

A far-infared image-forming device that provides a thermal photograph by scanning a far-infrared image of an object or scene

Thermograph

43

Photography that uses radiation in the long-wavelength far-infrared region

Thermography

44

An instrument that measures the turbidity of a liquid

Turbidimeter

45

This system is for the visualization of boundaries and different tissue densities particularly in the abdomen

Ultrasound

46

It is a computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move, manipulate objects, and accomplish work while interacting with its environment

Robot

47

It refers to the discipline of conceptualizing, designing, building and applying robots

Robotics

48

The term robotics was coined by

Isaac Asimov

49

Robot Generations

First - Primitive(No AI)
Second - Programmed using a button box
Third - First truly computer-programmable robots
Fourth - Considered the next generation robots (Can Multiply and evolve)

50

Three Laws of Robotics

First Law - robot may not injure humanity
Second Law - robot must obey orders given it by human beings
Third Law - robot must protect its own existence

51

It is a programmable multi-function manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools or any specified device through variable programmed motion for the performance of a variety of task

Industrial Robot

52

It is an automatic control device that reacts in response to a feedback signal

Servocontrol mechanism

53

It is less expensive and simpler in design an operation but considerably more limited in scope than servorobots

Nonservorobots

54

One of limited number of ways a robot can move

Degree of freedom

55

It is like the human hand used to grasp objects like a workpiece or some other parts

End effector

56

Refers to the robot as a whole, including base, power supply, and arm

Manipulator

57

The brain and nervous system for the robot

Controller

58

The method used for determining the work envelope or spatial volume in which the robot operates

Coordinate systems

59

Defined by three distances in which the work space resembles a rectangle

Cartesian or rectangular coordinates

60

Defined by two distances and an angle in which the work space resembles a cylinder

Cylindrical Coordinates

61

Defined by two angles and a distance in which the work space resembles a sphere

Spherical Coordinates

62

Combines the features of other systems

Jointed arm configuration

63

Robotic motion which only the angles and extensions needed to reach the starting and ending points are required

Point-to-point path motion

64

Robotic motion which defined by interim positions and angles

Continuous path motion

65

Robotic motion which every point in a line is determined by a mathematical function

Controlled path motion

66

Types of robot actuators

Electric motor actuator
Hydraulic fluid actuator
Pneumatic fluid actuator

67

This program produces only two-position motion about any individual robot axis

Positive-stop Program

68

This program has the capacity to move a robot axis to any position within its range

Point-to-point program

69

It is similar to point-to-point program but with the destination position very close together

Continuous-path programs

70

It is a 4-axis robot with rotating elements that move in a single plane and therefore limits the work envelope but also inexpensive compared to sophisticated robots

SCARA robot

71

A motor or transducer that converts energy (electric, hydraulic or pneumatic) into power used to produce motion or power

Actuator

72

The ability of a robot to position its end effector at a programmed location in space

Accuracy

73

Control signals that are processed by directly measuring quantities

Analog control

74

A robot or machine that resembles a human

Android

75

A robot with rotary joints that can move much like a person's arm

Anthropomorphic robot

76

An interconnected set of links and powered joints comprising a manipulator that supports or moves a wrist, hand or end effector

Arm

77

The ability of a machine system to perceived anticipated or unanticipated new conditions

Artificial intelligence

78

Also known as assembly cell or assembly station

Assembly

79

Is the used of any one of several techniques to determine the presence or absence of features

Automated inspection

80

Automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process or system by mechanical or electronics devices that replace human observation, effort and decision

Automation

81

A traveled path in space, usually referred to as a linear direction of travel in any of threee dimensions

Axis

82

A robot in which motions are controlled by driving each axis or degree of freedom against a mechanical limit stop

Bang-bang robot

83

The platform or structure to which a robot arm is attached

Base

84

The production of parts or materials in discrete runs, or batches, interspersed with other production operations or runs of other parts or materials

Batch manufacturing

85

An acronym for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing

CAD/CAM

86

A manufacturing unit consisting of two or more workstations or machines and the material transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them

Cell

87

A manufacturing unit consisting of two or more cells, and the materials transport mechanisms and storage buffers that interconnect them

Center

88

An assembly between two closely related rigid members enabling on member to rotate in relation to the other around a mobile axis

Complex joint

89

The use of an interactive-terminal workstation usually with graphics capability to automate the design of products

Computer-aided-design (CAD)

90

Working from a product design likely to exist in a CAD data base

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

91

The philosophy dictating that all functions within a manufacturing operation be data base-driven and that information from within any single data be shared by other functional groups

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)

92

A numerical control system with a dedicated mini or micro computer that performs the functions of data processing and control

Computerized numerical control (CNC)

93

The unit of automatic work for a robot

Cycle (program)

94

The number of independent ways the end effector can move

Degrees of Freedom

95

A multistep process beginning with a description of the range of tasks to be performed

Design process (of robots)

96

The joint that connects the upper arm and forearm on a robot

Elbow

97

Also know as end-of-arm tooling

End effector

98

A computer program usually based on artificial intelligence techniques

Expert system

99

Robots with little computer power

First-generation robot system

100

Also known as a nonservo robot or open robot

Fixed-stop robot

101

Multipurpose robots that are adaptable and capable of being redirected, trained or used for new purpose

Flexibility, operational

102

An arrangement of machine tools that is capable of standing alone, interconnected by a workpiece transport system and controlled by a central computer

Flexible manufacturing system (FMS)

103

Also known as pedestal robot

Floor-mounted robot

104

That portion of a jointed arm which is connected to the wrist and elbow

Forearm

105

An overhead-mounted, rectilinear robot with a minimum of three degrees of freedom and normally not exceeding six

Gantry robot

106

The grasping hand of a robot which manipulates objects and tools to fulfill a given task

Gripper

107

A technique for grouping parts to gain design and operational advantages

Group Technology

108

A fingered gripper sometimes disguised from a regular gripper by having more than three fingers and more dexterous finger motions resembling the human hand

Hand

109

Also known as fixed automation, or hard tooling

Hard Automation

110

Robot manipulation and sensory feedback to check the compliance of a part or assembly with specifications

Inspection (robotic)

111

An approach used to introduce factory automation technology into manufacturing by selective application of automation

Islands of automation

112

A discrete parts-manufacturing facility characterized by a mix of products of relatively low-volume production in batch lots

Job shop

113

The degree to which a process has been made automatic

Level of automation

114

an electrical switched positioned to be switched when a motion limit occurs

Limit switch

115

The use of the robot's manipulative and transport capabilities in ways generally more sophisticated than simple materials-handling

Machine loading

116

A numerically controlled metal-cutting machine tool that uses tools

Machining center

117

A mechanism usually consisting of a series of segments or links, jointed or sliding relative to one another

Manipulator

118

The use of the robot's basic capability to transport objects

Materials-handling

119

The basic element of a central processing unit that is constructed as a single integrated circuit

Microprocessor

120

The means of attaching end of arm tooling to an industrial robot

Mounting plate

121

A method for the control of machine tool systems

Numerical control

122

Developing robot programs partially or completely without requiring the use of the robot itself

Off-line programming

123

Software that controls the execution of computer programs

Operating system

124

The four robot generations were proposed by ______

Eiji Nakano

125

The first instance that the term "Robot" was used was in a play called ________ written by __________ in ________

Rossum's Universal Robots, Karel Capek, 1921

126

The Short Story written by Isaac Asimov, where the 3 laws of robotics were written

Runaround

127

In 1948, William Grey Wiener invents two robots, ______ and _____, robots that mimic lifeforms

Elmer and Elsie

128

The two proponents of the first robot company (1956)

George Devol & Joseph Engelberger

129

The First Industrial Robot

UNIMATE

130

First Company to purchase UNIMATE(the first industrial robot arm)

General Motors

131

The Six Degrees of Freedom

1.) Forward/Reverse
2.) Left/Right
3.) Up/Down
4.) Tilt Up/Tilt Down
5.) Tilt Sideways
6.) Swivel Left/Right

132

A term used to describe the three linear motion degrees of freedom

Prismatic

133

A term used to describe the three rotational/angular motion degrees of freedom

Revolute

134

the number of joints needed in a robot depend on how many __________ a robot design needs

degrees of freedom
(number of joints = number of degrees of freedom)

135

Tilt up/tilt down (imagine a bird soaring high or doing a nosedive) DOF is also called __________

Pitch

136

Sideway tilting (imagine an airplane doing a barrel roll) DOF is also called _________

Roll

137

The Swivel/Steer to the left/right movement (imagine a boat steering left or right) DOF is also called

Yaw

138

A Cartesian Robot has ______ Prismatic Joints and _____ Revolute Joints

3 Prismatic
0 Revolute

139

A Cylindrical Robot has ______ Prismatic Joints and _____ Revolute Joints

2 Prismatic
1 Revolute

140

An Articulated Robot has ______ Prismatic Joints and _____ Revolute Joints

0 Prismatic
3 Revolute

141

A Gantry Robot has ______ Prismatic Joints and _____ Revolute Joints

3 Prismatic
0 Revolute

142

A Spherical Robot has ______ Prismatic Joints and _____ Revolute Joints

1 Prismatic
2 Revolute

143

A SCARA Robot has ______ Prismatic Joints and _____ Revolute Joints

1 Prismatic
2 Revolute

144

Another term for Articulated Robot

Anthropomorphic

145

An Articulated Robot mimics the movement of _____

Humans

146

Advantages of an Electric Actuator

- Low Cost
- No Oil leaks
- Accurate servo positioning

147

Disadvantages of an Electric Actuator

- Limited Force
- Low Holding Strength when stopped

148

Advantages of an Hydraulic Actuator

- Great Force
- Great Holding Strength
- Accurate Positioning

149

Disadvantages of an Hydraulic Actuator

- High Cost
- Oil Leaks
- Heavy

150

Advantages of an Pneumatic Actuator

- Moderate Cost
- Clean
- Quick Response

151

Disadvantages of an Pneumatic Actuator

- Cannot Accuraly Position itself
- Weak Force
- Not So Much Holding Strength

152

Accuracy range of an uncalibrated robot

+- 100mm

153

Accuracy range of a calibrated robot

+- 0.01mm

154

How is the robot property, Maximum Speed, Measured?

The Speed where all joints and arms move in a complementary motion for its end effector to achieve maximum speed

155

A robot property that describes the ability to return repeatedly to a given position or perform the same set of movements; it is expressed as error

Repeatability

156

A robot property that describes the Smallest increment motion

Resolution

157

A robot property that describes the Maximum Horizontal Distance from the robot center to the tip of the end effector

Reach

158

A robot property that describes the Maximum weight that can be carried by the robot, without sacrificing presicion

Payload

159

The Volume of work area reachable by the robot

Working Envelope