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Flashcards in Electronic Circuits Deck (235):
1

Process of converting AC to pulsating DC

Rectification

2

Process of removing 1/2 cycle of the input

Half wave rectification

3

Formula for Average(dc) Voltage at the output of a Half Wave Rectifier

0.318 Vp
or
Vp / π

4

Formula for Average(dc) Voltage at the output of a Full Wave Rectifier

0.636 Vp
or
2Vp / π

5

A clipper circuit is also known as a

Limiter

6

Refers to the introduction of a reference signal level

Clamping

7

Clamping is also called

DC reinsertion and DC restoration

8

An electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage

Voltage Multiplication

9

A Power Supply consists of

Transformer, Rectifier, Filter, Regulator, Load

10

Formula for Induced Voltage in a transformer winding(either primary or secondary) when the core contributes to its voltage

V = 4.44 N f ɸ

N - # of turns
ɸ - Max Flux in core (Wb)
f - frequency

11

Turns Ratio (Formula)

a = Ns / Np

a = Vs / Vp

a = sqrt( Zs / Zp)

a = Ip / Is

12

Copper Loss (Formula)

Losses across the Resistances

(I^2)R

13

Eddy Current Loss (Formula)

We = ne (fB)^2

ne - proportionality constant
f - frequency
B - max flux density

14

Transformer Efficiency (Formula)

n = (Pout / Pin) x 100%

Pin = Pout + Ploss

15

Formula for Vrms of Half Wave

0.707 Vm

16

Formula for Vrms of Full Wave

0.707 Vm

17

Ripple Factor (Formula)

r = V(ripple)rms / VaveFW/HW

V(ripple)rms - RMS Ripple Voltage
VaveFW/HW - average output voltage of FW/HW Rectifier, not the Vdc of the ripple

18

Formula for Voltage Regulation/Load Regulation

%VR = (Vnl - Vfl) / Vfl

*NO FULL FULL*

19

Converts Pulsating DC to Suitably Smooth DC level

Filter

20

Formula for V(ripple)rms in a C-filter (Formula)

V(ripple)rms= Idc / (4√3 * fC)

Idc - DC current
f - frequency
C - Capacitance

21

Simplest and most economic filter

C-filter

22

Formula for Vdc in RC-filter (Formula)

Vdc(load) = (Rload / (Rload + Rrc)) * Vdc(FW/HW)

Rrc - Resistor used in RC filter
Vdc(FW/HW) - Average voltage just after the FW/HW rectifier, serving as the input to the RC filter

23

Formula for V(ripple)rms in RC-filter (Formula)

V(ripple)rms(load) = (Xc / Rrc) * Vrms(FW/HW)

Rrc - Resistor used in RC filter
Vrms(FW/HW) - RMS voltage just after the FW/HW rectifier, serving as the input to the RC filter

24

Provide Steady DC output

Voltage Regulators

25

Stability Factor (Formula)

S = ΔVo / ΔVin

@constant output current

26

Arrangement of Fixed and Variable resistive elements used to reduce the strength of an RF or AF signal.

Attenuator

27

Another term for an Ideal Source

Stiff Source ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

28

The internal Resistance of an ideal voltage source is ______

0 Ohms

29

The internal Resistance of an ideal Current source is ______

Infinity Onms

30

Parts of a battery

1.) + terminal
2.) - terminal
3.) Electrolyte

31

When the battery is discharging, The (anode/cathode) is positive, and the (anode/cathode) is negative

Cathode is Positive
Anode is Negative

32

What process is involved when a battery discharges?

Reverse Electrolysis

33

Reverse electrolysis involves a ________ reaction into a _______ reaction

Chemical Reaction into Electrical Reaction

34

When the battery is charging, The (anode/cathode) is positive, and the (anode/cathode) is negative

Cathode is Negative
Anode is Positive

35

What process is involved when a battery charges?

Electrolysis

36

Electrolysis involves a ________ reaction into a _______ reaction

Electrical Reaction into Chemical Reaction

37

What chemical process is involved at the Anode when a battery discharges?

Oxidation

"NOA" (Negative Oxidation Anode)

38

What chemical process is involved at the Cathode when a battery discharges?

Reduction

"PRC" (Positive Reduction Cathode)

39

A Property of a battery that defines how long you can supply a constant current A for H hours

Ampere-hour (Ah)

40

THEORY: A circuit can be represented as one voltage source and a resistance in series

Thevenin's Theorem

41

THEORY: A circuit can be represented as one current source and a resistance in Parallel

Norton's Theorem

42

The Thevenin's Resistance and Norton's Resistance are ________

equal

43

Conversion from Thevenin's Voltage Source into Norton's Current Source

I(no) = V(th) / R(th)

44

Conversion from Norton's Current Source into Thevenin's Voltage Source

V(th) = I(no) R(no)

45

Steps in Obtaining Thevenin Equivalent / Norton Eqiovalent Circuit (TEC/NEC)

1.) TONS
(Thevenin Open Rload, Norton Short Rload)
Get V(th) / I(no)

2.) VSCO
(Voltage Source Short, Current Source Open)
Get R(th) / R(no)

3.) Rebuild Circuit (with V(th)/I(no) and R(th)/R(no))
and replace Rload back into the TEC/NEC circuit

46

Thevenin's Resistance is also called ______

Looking Back Resistance

47

Norton's Resistance is also called ______

Looking In Resistance

48

Formulas for Delta to Wye

RY = (Product of RΔ Adjacent to RY) / (Sum of RΔ)

49

Formulas for Wye to Delta

RΔ = [Sum of Products (RY)] / (RY opposite to RΔ)

50

When Branches that consist of [a Voltage source and a resistance in series], and of these branches are connected in parallel to each other, what Theorem is applicable to obtain the effective voltage across the parallel connection?

Millman's Theorem

51

Formula for Voltage across a parallel connection of branches consisting of [a Voltage source and a resistance in series] (AKA Millman's Theorem)

V(No Load) = { (E1 / R1) + (E2 / R2) + ... } / { (1 / R1) + (1 / R2) + ...}

52

Formula for Resistance across a parallel connection of branches consisting of [a Voltage source and a resistance in series] (AKA Millman's Theorem)

Reff = 1 / { (1 / R1) + (1 / R2) + ... }

53

What do you call the approximation on the resistance of a conductor that assumes it has zero resistance?

Ideal Approximation

54

When Zinc is employed as a component in a battery, it is usually the (Negative/Positive) terminal

Negative

55

When Copper is employed as a component in a battery, it is usually the (Negative/Positive) terminal

Positive

56

A circuit that operates at maximum power transfer has an efficiency of _____%

50%

57

Form Factor of a Sine Wave

FF = Vrms / Vave
FF = 0.707 Vm / 0.636 Vm

FF(sinewave) = 1.1

58

Technique for Average Value of Voltage of ANY waveform

NOTE: ONLY FOR THE HALF CYCLE

Vave = Area Under the curve(of the waveform) / Length of the curve

Length is usually the time in the time axis

59

Technique for RMS Value of Voltage of ANY WAVEFORM

1.) Segment the waveform into even vertical strips, the more, the better
2.) Get the MIDDLE value of voltage per vertical strip
3.) Square these values
4.) Add the squared values
5.) divide the sum by the number of vertical strips made
6.) Square root the answer

Final Formula:
Vrms = SQRT( { [V1^2] + [V2^2] + [V3^2] +... } / n )

60

Peak value of waveform

Vp=sqrt(2)*Vrms

61

Peak to peak value of waveworm

Vpp=2Vp

62

Average value of waveform

Vave=2Vp/π

63

RMS value of a waveform

Vrms=Vp/sqrt(2)

64

What is form factor

ratio of rms to average value
Vrms/Vave

65

What is peak factor

ratio of peak to rms
Vp/Vrms

66

Series RL Circuit total voltage

Vt = Vr + jVL
= |Vt|∠θ

67

Series RL Circuit total impedance

Z = R + jXL
= |Z|∠θ

68

Series RL Circuit total current

It = Vt / Z

69

Series RC Circuit total voltage

Vt = Vr - jVc
= |Vt|∠θ

70

Series RC Circuit total impedance

Z = R - jXc
= |Z|∠θ

71

Series RC Circuit total Current

It = Vt / Z

72

Series RLC Circuit total voltage

Vt = Vr + jVL - jVc
= |Vt|∠θ

73

Series RLC Circuit total impedance

Z = R + jXL - jXc
= |Z|∠θ

74

Series RLC Circuit total current

It = Vt / Z

75

Parallel RL Circuit Total current

It = Ir - jIL
= |It|∠θ

76

Parallel RL Circuit Total admittance,Y

Y = G - jBL
= |Y|∠θ

77

Parallel RL Circuit Total Voltage

Vt = It*Z

78

Parallel RC Circuit Total current

It = Ir + jIC
= |It|∠θ

79

Parallel RC Circuit Total admittance,Y

Y = G + jBc
= |Y|∠θ

80

Parallel RC Circuit Total Impedance, Z

Z = 1 / Y

81

Parallel RC Circuit Total Voltage

Vt = It*Z

82

Parallel RLC Circuit total current

It = Ir + jIc - jIL
=|It|∠θ

83

Parallel RLC Circuit total Admittance

Y = G +jBc - jBL
=|Y|∠θ

84

Parallel RLC Circuit total Impedance

Z = 1/Y

85

Parallel RLC Circuit total Voltage

Vt = It*Z

86

True/Real/Active Power formula

P = Ir² R
= Vr² / R
= Ir*Vr (watts)
= Vt*It*cos(θ)

cos(θ) = power factor

Subscript 'r' means V/I at resistor

87

Reactive Power formula

Q = Ix*Vx
= Vt*It*sin(θ)

sin(θ) = reactive factor


Subscript 'x' means V/I at Capacitor/Inductor

88

Apparent power formula

S=I²Z
=Vt²/Z
=Vt*It

Z is Real + Reactive componet impedance

89

Power Triangle

cos(θ) = P/S (Power Factor)
sin(θ) = Q/S (Reactive Factor)
S= P +-jQ = |S|

90

Resonant Frequency Formula (Both Series and THEORETICAL Parallel)

Fr = 1 / (2π*√(LC))

91

What is a Quality Factor(Series or Parallel Resonant)

AT RESONANCE, It is the ratio of stored/reactive power to the dissipated/real power

92

Formula for Quality Factor Formula in resonant circuits (Series Resonant)

@Fresonant:

Q= XL/Rs = Xc/Rs
Q=(1/Rs)*√(L/C)

93

Formula for Rise in voltage across L and C at resonance (series resonant)

VL = Q*E
VC = Q*E

E - Source Voltage

94

Formula for Bandwidth formula at resonance

BW=Fr/Q

95

Formula for Q of a theoretical circuit (parallel resonant)

Q = Rp / XL = Rp / Xc
Q = Rp*√(C / L)

96

Formula for Rise in tank current at parallel resonance

Itank = Q*It
(Since L and C form a tank circuit)

97

Formula for Transient Voltage of RL Circuit, Charging

VL = E*e^( -t / τ)
Vr = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))

τ - Time Constant ( τ = L/R )

98

Formula for Transient Voltage of RC Circuit, Charging

Vc = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))
Vr = E*e^( -t / τ)

τ - Time Constant ( τ = RC )

99

Criterion for Overdamped Case for series RLC

(R/2L)^2 > 1/LC

100

Critically Damped Case for Series RLC

(R/2L)^2 = 1/LC

101

Underdamped case for Series RLC

(R/2L)^2 < 1/LC

102

A Purely Capacitive Load's Current _______ the Voltage by 90 Degrees

Leads

103

Formula for Reactance of a Capacitor (Xc)

Xc = 1 / 2πfC

104

The real power Dissipated by a capacitor/inductor is ___________

zero

105

A Purely Inductive Load's Current _______ the Voltage by 90 Degrees

Lags

106

Formula for Reactance of a Inductor (XL)

XL = 2πfL

107

The reciprocal of Reactance (X)

Suceptance (B)

108

The reciprocal of Impedance (Z)

Admittance (Y)

109

Unit for Real Power

Watts

110

Unit for Reactive Power

Volt - Ampere Reactive (VAR)

111

Unit for Apparent Power

Volt -Ampere (VA)

112

Phase angle FOR ANY CIRCUIT WITH REACTANCE

θ = +- tan⁻¹ ( i / R )

i - any imaginary value (Vx, Ix, XL, XC, Q, Must match R)
R - any real value ((Vr, Ir, R, P, Must match i)

113

AVE Voltage value of a DC Pulse with a duty cycle

Vave = Vp * ( a / b )

a - 'on' time within one period
b - 'off' time within one period

114

RMS Voltage value of a DC Pulse with a duty cycle

Vrms = Vp * sqrt ( a / b )

a - 'on' time within one period
b - 'off' time within one period

115

AVE Voltage value of a Triangular/Sawtooth Wave

Vave = 0.5 Vp

116

RMS Voltage of a Triangular/Sawtooth Wave

Vrms = 0.577 * Vp

117

AVE and RMS Value of Square Wave

Vave = Vrms = Vp

¯\_(ツ)_/¯

118

RMS Voltage of White Noise

Vrms = (1/4)Vp

119

At Series Resonance, the impedance of the circuit is (Max/Min), at Z = ________

Minimum
Z = R

120

At Series Resonance, the Current of the circuit is (Max/Min), at I = ________

Maximum
I = E / R

121

At Series Resonant, if operating Frequency is less than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

Capacitive

122

At Series Resonant, if operating Frequency is greater than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

Inductive

123

At Series or Parallel Resonant, if Z is capacitive, θ(phase angle) is ( + / - )

Positive (Current leading, ICE)

124

At Series or Parallel Resonant, if Z is Inductive, θ(phase angle) is ( + / - )

Negative (Current lagging, ELI)

125

Phase angle by default is with reference to whether _______ leads/lags

Current
(Use ELI or ICE to determine sign of θ_

126

A Series Resonant Circuit at resonance Amplifies the ________ of the reactive components by a factor of __________

Voltage, by a factor of Q(Quality factor)

127

In Series Resonant Circuit, at Resonance, The voltage across the inductor and capacitor are _______ but _______, therefore, both voltages _________

Equal in magnitude, but opposing phase angle, therefore both will cancel

128

Formula for the Dissipation Factor

Dissipation Factor = 1 / Q

Q - Quality Factor

129

What is the assumption for an inductor's resistance in a THEORETICAL parallel resonance circuit

no resistance

130

At Parallel Resonance, the impedance of the circuit is (Max/Min), at Z = ________

Maximum
Z = Rparallel

131

At Parallel Resonance, the Current of the circuit is (Max/Min), at I = ________

Minimum
I = Irp

Irp - current at parallel resistor

132

When a circuit is in resonance (Either Series or Parallel), The circuit is (Inductive, Capacitive, Resistive)

Resistive

133

At Parallel Resonant, if operating Frequency is less than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

Inductive

134

At Parallel Resonant, if operating Frequency is Greater than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

Capacitive

135

A Parallel Resonant Circuit at resonance Amplifies the ________ of the reactive components by a factor of __________

Current, by a factor of Q (Quality factor)

136

In Parallel Resonant Circuit, at Resonance, The current across the inductor and capacitor are _______ but _______, therefore, both currents _________

Equal in magnitude, but opposing phase angle, therefore both will cancel

137

What is the assumption for an inductor's resistance in a PRACTICAL parallel resonance circuit

inductor has an internal resistance (in series with the inductor on that branch)

138

Formula for Q of a practical parallel resonance circuit

Q = XLs / Rs

When transformed,
Q = XLeq / Rp

(Both Q's are of equal value)

139

Formula for inductor's original reactance converted into an equivalent parallel reactance

XLeq = XLs * ( [1 + Q²] / Q² )

140

Formula for inductor's internal resistance converted into an equivalent parallel resistance

Rp = Rs (Q² +1)

Rs - Inductor Internal Resistance
Rp - Equivalent parallel resistance

141

Formula for Impedance at resonance of a practical parallel resonance circuit

Z = Rp = Rs * ( Q² + 1 )


Rs - Inductor Internal Resistance
Rp - Equivalent parallel resistance

142

Approximate Formulas for Parallel equivalent of XLs and Rs (XLeq & Rp) when Q >= 10

Rp = Q² * Rs

XLeq = XLs

143

Formula for Resonant Frequency of a practical parallel resonance circuit

Fr = { 1 / (2π*√(LC)) } * √( Q² / (1 + Q²) )

144

Approximate Formula for Resonant Frequency of a practical parallel resonance circuit when Q >= 10

Fr = { 1 / (2π*√(LC)) }

145

Quality factor (Q) is a property measured only when the circuit is currently in ____________

Resonance

146

an Inductor's Voltage is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the current through it

DERIVATIVE :

V = L * di/dt (FARADAY'S LAW)

147

an Inductor's current is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the voltage across it

INTEGRAL:

i = (1/L) * ∫ v*dt

148

a Capacitor's Voltage is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the current through it

INTEGRAL:

V = Q / C = (1/C) * ∫ i*dt (From Q = CV)

149

a Capacitor's current is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the voltage across it

DERIVATIVE :

i = C * dv/dt

150

At time = 0 seconds, Inductors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

Open

151

At time = ∞ seconds, Inductors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

Short

152

At time = 0 seconds, Capacitors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

Short

153

At time = ∞ seconds, Capacitors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

Open

154

Formula for Transient Voltage of RL Circuit, Discharging

VL = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))
Vr = E*e^( -t / τ)

τ - Time Constant ( τ = L/R )

155

Formula for Transient Voltage of RC Circuit, Discharging

Vc = E*e^( -t / τ)
Vr = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))

τ - Time Constant ( τ = RC )

156

At τ = 1 time constant, A capacitor is charged at ____% of the applied voltage

63.2%

157

At τ = 2 time constant, A capacitor is charged at ____% of the applied voltage

86.5%

158

At τ = 5 time constant, A capacitor is charged at ____% of the applied voltage

100%

159

Formula for Alpha (α) in an RLC Transient analysis

α = R / 2L

R - Resistance (ohm)
L - Inductance (H)

160

Formula for Beta (β) in an RLC Transient analysis

β = Sqrt ( α² - (1/LC) )

α - R / 2L
R - Resistance (ohm)
L - Inductance (H)
C - Capacitance (F)

161

When β is Positive, the transient circuit is ______

Overdamped

162

When β is equal to 0, the transient circuit is ______

Critically damped

163

When β is imaginary (due to square root), the transient circuit is ______

Underdamped

164

instantateous current value (i) of an overdamped circuit

i = { E / 2*β*L } * { e^[(α + β)*t] - e^[(α - β)*t] }

165

instantateous current value (i) of a critically damped circuit

i = (E*t / L) * e^(α*t)

166

instantateous current value (i) of an underdamped circuit

i = { e^(α*t) } * { (E / β*L) * sinβt }

167

β for a Transient Circuit is also called ________

Damped Circuit Discriminant:

β > 0 --- Overdamped
β = 0 --- Critically Damped
β is imaginary --- Underdamped

168

The average(dc) value of the input voltage to a Halfwave/Fullwave rectifier is _____

0 Volts
(because input is usually pure AC)

169

Formula for The RMS value of the input voltage to a Halfwave/Fullwave rectifier is _____

0.707 * Vp
(because input is usually pure AC)

170

Formula for The RMS value of the output voltage to a Halfwave rectifier is _____

Vrmsout = 0.5 * Vp

171

Formula for The RMS value of the output voltage to a Fullwave rectifier is _____

Vrmsout = 0.707 * Vp

172

Form Factor of Half Wave Output Voltage

FFhw = 1.57

173

Form Factor of Full Wave Output Voltage

FFfw = 1.11

174

Ripple Factor of Half Wave Output Voltage

RFhw = 1.21

175

Ripple Factor of Full Wave Output Voltage

RFfw = 0.48

176

The diodes in a half wave rectifier must have a Peak Inverse Voltage greater than or equal to __________

Input Vp

177

The diodes in a Full wave bridge rectifier must have a Peak Inverse Voltage greater than or equal to __________

Input Vp

178

The diodes in a Full wave Center Tapped rectifier must have a Peak Inverse Voltage greater than or equal to __________

2 * (Input Vp)

179

Maximum Flux (Φ) in a transformer coil

Φ = Bm * A

Bm - Max. Flux Density (in Tesla)
A - Core Cross Sectional Area (m^2)

180

In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the PRIMARY WINDINGS are in Δ formation (either Δ-Δ or Δ-Y), the PRIMARY line's ______ is √3 times the Primary Winding's __________

Current, Current

I(Line,Pri) = √3 * I(Winding, Pri)

181

In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the PRIMARY WINDINGS are in Y formation (either Y-Δ or Y-Y), the PRIMARY line's ______ is √3 times the Primary Winding's __________

Voltage, Voltage

V(Line,Pri) = √3 * V(Winding, Pri)

182

In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the SECONDARY WINDINGS are in Δ formation (either Δ-Δ or Y-Δ), the SECONDARY line's ______ is √3 times the Secondary Winding's __________

Current, Current

I(Line,Sec) = √3 * I(Winding, Sec)

183

In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the SECONDARY WINDINGS are in Y formation (either Δ-Y or Y-Y), the SECONDARY line's ______ is √3 times the Secondary Winding's __________

Voltage, Voltage

V(Line,Sec) = √3 * V(Winding, Sec)

184

Formula for Turns ratio of Primary to secondary coil to obtain a specific Primary-to-secondary Voltage ratio

Vpri / Vsec = Npri / Nsec

185

Formula for Turns ratio of Primary to secondary coil to obtain a specific Primary-to-secondary Current ratio

Ipri / Isec = Nsec / Npri

186

When Primary and secondary coils of a 3-Phase Transformer have the same formation (Δ-Δ or Y-Y), the Phasor diagram of the Primary input is _______ with the Phasor diagram of the secondary output

in phase / Same phasor diagram

187

When Primary and secondary coils of a 3-Phase Transformer have a different formation (Δ-Y or ΔY), the Phasor diagram of the Primary input is _______ with the Phasor diagram of the secondary output

30 degrees Out of Phase

188

Formula for Average(dc) voltage output of a 3-Phase Single Way Rectifier

Vdc = 0.827 * Vp

189

Formula for RMS voltage output of a 3-Phase Single Way Rectifier

Vrms = 0.841 * Vp

190

Formula for Average(dc) voltage output of a 3-Phase Double Way Rectifier

Vdc = 0.955 * Vp

191

Formula for RMS voltage output of a 3-Phase Double Way Rectifier

Vrms = 0.95577 * Vp

192

A 3-Phase Single Way Rectifier is analogous to a ________ Rectifier when in Single Phase

Half Wave

193

A 3-Phase Double Way Rectifier is analogous to a ________ Rectifier when in Single Phase

Full Wave

194

Total Transformer loss is the sum of _________ loss and ________ loss

Copper, core

195

Core losses are comprised of ______ loss and _______ loss

Eddy Current, Hysteresis

196

Why Eddy Current Losses occur is due to the fact that _____

Core is exposed to changing magnetic field as well, and since it is a conductor, a current and voltage is also induced in it

197

Solution to mitigate Eddy Current losses

Laminate the core
or
use Dielectrics(also insulators) like ferrites

198

Formula for Hysteresis Loss

W(hysteresis) = ηh * f * (Bm^1.6)

ηh - Hysteresis coefficient
f - frequency
Bm - Max. Flux Density

199

Why Hysteresis Losses occur is due to the fact that _____

a core is retentive: magnetic domains inside the core cannot keep up with the changing magnetic field, creating a lagging effect in the magnetic change, causing friction

200

MEAN VALUE THEOREM:
AVERAGE VALUE OF ANY WAVEFORM

AVERAGE = (1 / (b - a)) * ∫( f(x) dx , a(lower limit) , b(upper limit )

a and b are the specific period points on the function/waveform of inqiury
f(x)-waveform equation with respect to time

201

MEAN VALUE THEOREM:
RMS VALUE OF ANY WAVEFORM

RMS = SQRT{ (1 / (b - a)) * ∫( f(x)² dx , a(lower limit) , b(upper limit ) }

a and b are the specific period points on the function/waveform of inqiury
f(x)-waveform equation with respect to time

202

The Ripple Factor is also known as ______

Percentage Ripple (%ripple)

203

Formula for Ripple RMS Voltage

V(ripple)rms = √( Vrms(FW/HW)² - Vdc(FW/HW)² )

Vrms(FW/HW) - RMS of FW/HW output
Vdc(FW/HW) - AVE of FW/HW output

204

Alternative Ripple Factor Formula (involving C-Filter and Load Resistance at the FW/HW outpit)

r = 1 / (4√3 * f*C*R)

f - Frequency
C - Capacitance
R - Load Resistance

205

Formula for peak-to-peak Ripple Voltage of a halfwave rectifier (including C-Filter)

Vrpp = Idc / fC

Idc - Direct Current (DC) Current in the circuit
f - Frequency
C - Capacitance

206

Formula for peak-to-peak Ripple Voltage of a Fullwave rectifier (including C-Filter)

Vrpp = Idc / 2fC

Idc - Direct Current (DC) Current in the circuit
f - Frequency
C - Capacitance

207

Formula for Average(dc) Voltage of a C-filter output

Vave = Vp(FW/HW) - (Vrpp(FW/HW) / 2)

Vp(FW/HW) - FW/HW Output Peak voltage (not ripple)
Vrpp(FW/HW) - peak-to-peak ripple voltage, either fullwave or halfwave

208

Formula for Peak Ripple Voltage

Vrp = √3 * Vr(rms)

Vrp - Ripple Peak Voltage
Vr(rms) - Ripple RMS Voltage

209

Alternative Ripple RMS Voltage for Halfwave Rectifiers

Vr(rms)HW = 0.386 * Vp

Vp - Halfwave output peak voltage

210

Alternative Ripple RMS Voltage for Fullwave Rectifiers

Vr(rms)FW = 0.308 * Vp

Vp - Fullwave output peak voltage

211

The four parts of a Voltage Regulator

1.) Series/Shunt Element
2.) Comparator
3.) Sampling Circuit
4.) Reference Voltage

212

Formula for Load Voltage of a Simple Series Voltage Regulator

VL = Vo = Vz - VBE

Vz - Zener Voltage
VBE - Voltage across BE junction of BJT Series Element(usually 0.7)

213

Formula for Load Voltage of a Simple Shunt Voltage Regulator

VL = Vo = Vz + VBE

Vz - Zener Voltage
VBE - Voltage across BE junction of BJT Series Element(usually 0.7)

214

In a Series Voltage Regulator, what part of the voltage regulator is in series with the load resistor?

Series element (usually BJT)

215

In a Shunt Voltage Regulator, what part of the voltage regulator is in parallel with the load resistor?

Shunt element (usually BJT)

216

What Device is usually used to provide the reference voltage of a voltage regulator?

Zener Diode

217

In a Fixed Voltage Regulator, the maximum input voltage allowed is usually ___________

Twice its rated output voltage

218

In a Fixed Voltage Regulator, the Minimum Input Voltage for operation is approximately ________

+-(Rated output voltage) +-2

+- depends on whether positive or negative supply

219

For Positive Fixed Voltage regulators, We use the ________ Family of ICs

7800 Series

220

For Negative Fixed Voltage regulators, We use the ________ Family of ICs

7900

221

The most famous IC used as an adjustable voltage regulator is the _______

LM317

222

The adjustable range of the LM317 IC

1.2 - 3.7 Volts

223

Formula for output voltage of an LM317 IC

Vo = Vref * (1 + R2/R1) + (Iadj * R2)

Iadj - Current coming from the adjustment leg of the LM317
R2 - Potentiometer, whose ends are connected to the ADJ leg and the ground of the circuit
R1 - Fixed resistor, whose ends are connected to the ADJ leg and the OUT leg of the LM317
Vref - Voltage across OUT leg and the ADJ leg

224

Typical value for Vref in LM317

Vref = 1.25 V

225

Typical Value for Iadj in LM317

Iadj = 100μA

226

Ideal Load/Voltage Regulation Value is ________

0%

227

No Load Voltage (>,

V(NL) > V(FL)

228

Formula for Source Regulation/Line Regulation

%SR = (Vh - Vl) / Vl x 100%

Vh - highest output voltage
Vl - Lowest output voltage

"SUSO, LAWLAW"

229

Ideal Line/Source Regulation Value is ________

0%

230

What does stability factor determine?

It Measures how effective the regulator is

231

A Positive Clamper has its Diode arrow pointing _______ the Capacitor

Toward

232

A Negative Clamper has its Diode arrow pointing _______ the Capacitor

Away from

233

A clamper consists of:

A Capacitor, a Diode, and the load in parallel to the diode

234

Another Term for Halfwave voltage doubler/tripler/quadrupler/etc

Villard Cascade

235

A Halfwave Voltage 'n' - ler(doubler, tripler, etc) involves ____ diodes and ____ capacitors

n diodes and n capacitors