Flashcards in Electronic Circuits Deck (235):

1

## Process of converting AC to pulsating DC

### Rectification

2

## Process of removing 1/2 cycle of the input

### Half wave rectification

3

## Formula for Average(dc) Voltage at the output of a Half Wave Rectifier

###
0.318 Vp

or

Vp / π

4

## Formula for Average(dc) Voltage at the output of a Full Wave Rectifier

###
0.636 Vp

or

2Vp / π

5

## A clipper circuit is also known as a

### Limiter

6

## Refers to the introduction of a reference signal level

### Clamping

7

## Clamping is also called

### DC reinsertion and DC restoration

8

## An electrical circuit that converts AC electrical power from a lower voltage to a higher DC voltage

### Voltage Multiplication

9

## A Power Supply consists of

### Transformer, Rectifier, Filter, Regulator, Load

10

## Formula for Induced Voltage in a transformer winding(either primary or secondary) when the core contributes to its voltage

###
V = 4.44 N f ɸ

N - # of turns

ɸ - Max Flux in core (Wb)

f - frequency

11

## Turns Ratio (Formula)

###
a = Ns / Np

a = Vs / Vp

a = sqrt( Zs / Zp)

a = Ip / Is

12

## Copper Loss (Formula)

###
Losses across the Resistances

(I^2)R

13

## Eddy Current Loss (Formula)

###
We = ne (fB)^2

ne - proportionality constant

f - frequency

B - max flux density

14

## Transformer Efficiency (Formula)

###
n = (Pout / Pin) x 100%

Pin = Pout + Ploss

15

## Formula for Vrms of Half Wave

### 0.707 Vm

16

## Formula for Vrms of Full Wave

### 0.707 Vm

17

## Ripple Factor (Formula)

###
r = V(ripple)rms / VaveFW/HW

V(ripple)rms - RMS Ripple Voltage

VaveFW/HW - average output voltage of FW/HW Rectifier, not the Vdc of the ripple

18

## Formula for Voltage Regulation/Load Regulation

###
%VR = (Vnl - Vfl) / Vfl

*NO FULL FULL*

19

## Converts Pulsating DC to Suitably Smooth DC level

### Filter

20

## Formula for V(ripple)rms in a C-filter (Formula)

###
V(ripple)rms= Idc / (4√3 * fC)

Idc - DC current

f - frequency

C - Capacitance

21

## Simplest and most economic filter

### C-filter

22

## Formula for Vdc in RC-filter (Formula)

###
Vdc(load) = (Rload / (Rload + Rrc)) * Vdc(FW/HW)

Rrc - Resistor used in RC filter

Vdc(FW/HW) - Average voltage just after the FW/HW rectifier, serving as the input to the RC filter

23

## Formula for V(ripple)rms in RC-filter (Formula)

###
V(ripple)rms(load) = (Xc / Rrc) * Vrms(FW/HW)

Rrc - Resistor used in RC filter

Vrms(FW/HW) - RMS voltage just after the FW/HW rectifier, serving as the input to the RC filter

24

## Provide Steady DC output

### Voltage Regulators

25

## Stability Factor (Formula)

###
S = ΔVo / ΔVin

@constant output current

26

## Arrangement of Fixed and Variable resistive elements used to reduce the strength of an RF or AF signal.

### Attenuator

27

## Another term for an Ideal Source

### Stiff Source ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)

28

## The internal Resistance of an ideal voltage source is ______

### 0 Ohms

29

## The internal Resistance of an ideal Current source is ______

### Infinity Onms

30

## Parts of a battery

###
1.) + terminal

2.) - terminal

3.) Electrolyte

31

## When the battery is discharging, The (anode/cathode) is positive, and the (anode/cathode) is negative

###
Cathode is Positive

Anode is Negative

32

## What process is involved when a battery discharges?

### Reverse Electrolysis

33

## Reverse electrolysis involves a ________ reaction into a _______ reaction

### Chemical Reaction into Electrical Reaction

34

## When the battery is charging, The (anode/cathode) is positive, and the (anode/cathode) is negative

###
Cathode is Negative

Anode is Positive

35

## What process is involved when a battery charges?

### Electrolysis

36

## Electrolysis involves a ________ reaction into a _______ reaction

### Electrical Reaction into Chemical Reaction

37

## What chemical process is involved at the Anode when a battery discharges?

###
Oxidation

"NOA" (Negative Oxidation Anode)

38

## What chemical process is involved at the Cathode when a battery discharges?

###
Reduction

"PRC" (Positive Reduction Cathode)

39

## A Property of a battery that defines how long you can supply a constant current A for H hours

### Ampere-hour (Ah)

40

## THEORY: A circuit can be represented as one voltage source and a resistance in series

### Thevenin's Theorem

41

## THEORY: A circuit can be represented as one current source and a resistance in Parallel

### Norton's Theorem

42

## The Thevenin's Resistance and Norton's Resistance are ________

### equal

43

## Conversion from Thevenin's Voltage Source into Norton's Current Source

### I(no) = V(th) / R(th)

44

## Conversion from Norton's Current Source into Thevenin's Voltage Source

### V(th) = I(no) R(no)

45

## Steps in Obtaining Thevenin Equivalent / Norton Eqiovalent Circuit (TEC/NEC)

###
1.) TONS

(Thevenin Open Rload, Norton Short Rload)

Get V(th) / I(no)

2.) VSCO

(Voltage Source Short, Current Source Open)

Get R(th) / R(no)

3.) Rebuild Circuit (with V(th)/I(no) and R(th)/R(no))

and replace Rload back into the TEC/NEC circuit

46

## Thevenin's Resistance is also called ______

### Looking Back Resistance

47

## Norton's Resistance is also called ______

### Looking In Resistance

48

## Formulas for Delta to Wye

### RY = (Product of RΔ Adjacent to RY) / (Sum of RΔ)

49

## Formulas for Wye to Delta

### RΔ = [Sum of Products (RY)] / (RY opposite to RΔ)

50

## When Branches that consist of [a Voltage source and a resistance in series], and of these branches are connected in parallel to each other, what Theorem is applicable to obtain the effective voltage across the parallel connection?

### Millman's Theorem

51

## Formula for Voltage across a parallel connection of branches consisting of [a Voltage source and a resistance in series] (AKA Millman's Theorem)

### V(No Load) = { (E1 / R1) + (E2 / R2) + ... } / { (1 / R1) + (1 / R2) + ...}

52

## Formula for Resistance across a parallel connection of branches consisting of [a Voltage source and a resistance in series] (AKA Millman's Theorem)

### Reff = 1 / { (1 / R1) + (1 / R2) + ... }

53

## What do you call the approximation on the resistance of a conductor that assumes it has zero resistance?

### Ideal Approximation

54

## When Zinc is employed as a component in a battery, it is usually the (Negative/Positive) terminal

### Negative

55

## When Copper is employed as a component in a battery, it is usually the (Negative/Positive) terminal

### Positive

56

## A circuit that operates at maximum power transfer has an efficiency of _____%

### 50%

57

## Form Factor of a Sine Wave

###
FF = Vrms / Vave

FF = 0.707 Vm / 0.636 Vm

FF(sinewave) = 1.1

58

## Technique for Average Value of Voltage of ANY waveform

###
NOTE: ONLY FOR THE HALF CYCLE

Vave = Area Under the curve(of the waveform) / Length of the curve

Length is usually the time in the time axis

59

## Technique for RMS Value of Voltage of ANY WAVEFORM

###
1.) Segment the waveform into even vertical strips, the more, the better

2.) Get the MIDDLE value of voltage per vertical strip

3.) Square these values

4.) Add the squared values

5.) divide the sum by the number of vertical strips made

6.) Square root the answer

Final Formula:

Vrms = SQRT( { [V1^2] + [V2^2] + [V3^2] +... } / n )

60

## Peak value of waveform

### Vp=sqrt(2)*Vrms

61

## Peak to peak value of waveworm

### Vpp=2Vp

62

## Average value of waveform

### Vave=2Vp/π

63

## RMS value of a waveform

### Vrms=Vp/sqrt(2)

64

## What is form factor

###
ratio of rms to average value

Vrms/Vave

65

## What is peak factor

###
ratio of peak to rms

Vp/Vrms

66

## Series RL Circuit total voltage

###
Vt = Vr + jVL

= |Vt|∠θ

67

## Series RL Circuit total impedance

###
Z = R + jXL

= |Z|∠θ

68

## Series RL Circuit total current

### It = Vt / Z

69

## Series RC Circuit total voltage

###
Vt = Vr - jVc

= |Vt|∠θ

70

## Series RC Circuit total impedance

###
Z = R - jXc

= |Z|∠θ

71

## Series RC Circuit total Current

### It = Vt / Z

72

## Series RLC Circuit total voltage

###
Vt = Vr + jVL - jVc

= |Vt|∠θ

73

## Series RLC Circuit total impedance

###
Z = R + jXL - jXc

= |Z|∠θ

74

## Series RLC Circuit total current

### It = Vt / Z

75

## Parallel RL Circuit Total current

###
It = Ir - jIL

= |It|∠θ

76

## Parallel RL Circuit Total admittance,Y

###
Y = G - jBL

= |Y|∠θ

77

## Parallel RL Circuit Total Voltage

### Vt = It*Z

78

## Parallel RC Circuit Total current

###
It = Ir + jIC

= |It|∠θ

79

## Parallel RC Circuit Total admittance,Y

###
Y = G + jBc

= |Y|∠θ

80

## Parallel RC Circuit Total Impedance, Z

### Z = 1 / Y

81

## Parallel RC Circuit Total Voltage

### Vt = It*Z

82

## Parallel RLC Circuit total current

###
It = Ir + jIc - jIL

=|It|∠θ

83

## Parallel RLC Circuit total Admittance

###
Y = G +jBc - jBL

=|Y|∠θ

84

## Parallel RLC Circuit total Impedance

### Z = 1/Y

85

## Parallel RLC Circuit total Voltage

### Vt = It*Z

86

## True/Real/Active Power formula

###
P = Ir² R

= Vr² / R

= Ir*Vr (watts)

= Vt*It*cos(θ)

cos(θ) = power factor

Subscript 'r' means V/I at resistor

87

## Reactive Power formula

###
Q = Ix*Vx

= Vt*It*sin(θ)

sin(θ) = reactive factor

Subscript 'x' means V/I at Capacitor/Inductor

88

## Apparent power formula

###
S=I²Z

=Vt²/Z

=Vt*It

Z is Real + Reactive componet impedance

89

## Power Triangle

###
cos(θ) = P/S (Power Factor)

sin(θ) = Q/S (Reactive Factor)

S= P +-jQ = |S|

90

## Resonant Frequency Formula (Both Series and THEORETICAL Parallel)

### Fr = 1 / (2π*√(LC))

91

## What is a Quality Factor(Series or Parallel Resonant)

### AT RESONANCE, It is the ratio of stored/reactive power to the dissipated/real power

92

## Formula for Quality Factor Formula in resonant circuits (Series Resonant)

###
@Fresonant:

Q= XL/Rs = Xc/Rs

Q=(1/Rs)*√(L/C)

93

## Formula for Rise in voltage across L and C at resonance (series resonant)

###
VL = Q*E

VC = Q*E

E - Source Voltage

94

## Formula for Bandwidth formula at resonance

### BW=Fr/Q

95

## Formula for Q of a theoretical circuit (parallel resonant)

###
Q = Rp / XL = Rp / Xc

Q = Rp*√(C / L)

96

## Formula for Rise in tank current at parallel resonance

###
Itank = Q*It

(Since L and C form a tank circuit)

97

## Formula for Transient Voltage of RL Circuit, Charging

###
VL = E*e^( -t / τ)

Vr = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))

τ - Time Constant ( τ = L/R )

98

## Formula for Transient Voltage of RC Circuit, Charging

###
Vc = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))

Vr = E*e^( -t / τ)

τ - Time Constant ( τ = RC )

99

## Criterion for Overdamped Case for series RLC

### (R/2L)^2 > 1/LC

100

## Critically Damped Case for Series RLC

### (R/2L)^2 = 1/LC

101

## Underdamped case for Series RLC

### (R/2L)^2 < 1/LC

102

## A Purely Capacitive Load's Current _______ the Voltage by 90 Degrees

### Leads

103

## Formula for Reactance of a Capacitor (Xc)

### Xc = 1 / 2πfC

104

## The real power Dissipated by a capacitor/inductor is ___________

### zero

105

## A Purely Inductive Load's Current _______ the Voltage by 90 Degrees

### Lags

106

## Formula for Reactance of a Inductor (XL)

### XL = 2πfL

107

## The reciprocal of Reactance (X)

### Suceptance (B)

108

## The reciprocal of Impedance (Z)

### Admittance (Y)

109

## Unit for Real Power

### Watts

110

## Unit for Reactive Power

### Volt - Ampere Reactive (VAR)

111

## Unit for Apparent Power

### Volt -Ampere (VA)

112

## Phase angle FOR ANY CIRCUIT WITH REACTANCE

###
θ = +- tan⁻¹ ( i / R )

i - any imaginary value (Vx, Ix, XL, XC, Q, Must match R)

R - any real value ((Vr, Ir, R, P, Must match i)

113

## AVE Voltage value of a DC Pulse with a duty cycle

###
Vave = Vp * ( a / b )

a - 'on' time within one period

b - 'off' time within one period

114

## RMS Voltage value of a DC Pulse with a duty cycle

###
Vrms = Vp * sqrt ( a / b )

a - 'on' time within one period

b - 'off' time within one period

115

## AVE Voltage value of a Triangular/Sawtooth Wave

### Vave = 0.5 Vp

116

## RMS Voltage of a Triangular/Sawtooth Wave

### Vrms = 0.577 * Vp

117

## AVE and RMS Value of Square Wave

###
Vave = Vrms = Vp

¯\_(ツ)_/¯

118

## RMS Voltage of White Noise

### Vrms = (1/4)Vp

119

## At Series Resonance, the impedance of the circuit is (Max/Min), at Z = ________

###
Minimum

Z = R

120

## At Series Resonance, the Current of the circuit is (Max/Min), at I = ________

###
Maximum

I = E / R

121

## At Series Resonant, if operating Frequency is less than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

### Capacitive

122

## At Series Resonant, if operating Frequency is greater than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

### Inductive

123

## At Series or Parallel Resonant, if Z is capacitive, θ(phase angle) is ( + / - )

###
Positive (Current leading, ICE)

124

## At Series or Parallel Resonant, if Z is Inductive, θ(phase angle) is ( + / - )

###
Negative (Current lagging, ELI)

125

## Phase angle by default is with reference to whether _______ leads/lags

###
Current

(Use ELI or ICE to determine sign of θ_

126

## A Series Resonant Circuit at resonance Amplifies the ________ of the reactive components by a factor of __________

### Voltage, by a factor of Q(Quality factor)

127

## In Series Resonant Circuit, at Resonance, The voltage across the inductor and capacitor are _______ but _______, therefore, both voltages _________

### Equal in magnitude, but opposing phase angle, therefore both will cancel

128

## Formula for the Dissipation Factor

###
Dissipation Factor = 1 / Q

Q - Quality Factor

129

## What is the assumption for an inductor's resistance in a THEORETICAL parallel resonance circuit

### no resistance

130

## At Parallel Resonance, the impedance of the circuit is (Max/Min), at Z = ________

###
Maximum

Z = Rparallel

131

## At Parallel Resonance, the Current of the circuit is (Max/Min), at I = ________

###
Minimum

I = Irp

Irp - current at parallel resistor

132

## When a circuit is in resonance (Either Series or Parallel), The circuit is (Inductive, Capacitive, Resistive)

### Resistive

133

## At Parallel Resonant, if operating Frequency is less than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

### Inductive

134

## At Parallel Resonant, if operating Frequency is Greater than Resonant Frequency, Z is ______

### Capacitive

135

## A Parallel Resonant Circuit at resonance Amplifies the ________ of the reactive components by a factor of __________

### Current, by a factor of Q (Quality factor)

136

## In Parallel Resonant Circuit, at Resonance, The current across the inductor and capacitor are _______ but _______, therefore, both currents _________

### Equal in magnitude, but opposing phase angle, therefore both will cancel

137

## What is the assumption for an inductor's resistance in a PRACTICAL parallel resonance circuit

### inductor has an internal resistance (in series with the inductor on that branch)

138

## Formula for Q of a practical parallel resonance circuit

###
Q = XLs / Rs

When transformed,

Q = XLeq / Rp

(Both Q's are of equal value)

139

## Formula for inductor's original reactance converted into an equivalent parallel reactance

### XLeq = XLs * ( [1 + Q²] / Q² )

140

## Formula for inductor's internal resistance converted into an equivalent parallel resistance

###
Rp = Rs (Q² +1)

Rs - Inductor Internal Resistance

Rp - Equivalent parallel resistance

141

## Formula for Impedance at resonance of a practical parallel resonance circuit

###
Z = Rp = Rs * ( Q² + 1 )

Rs - Inductor Internal Resistance

Rp - Equivalent parallel resistance

142

## Approximate Formulas for Parallel equivalent of XLs and Rs (XLeq & Rp) when Q >= 10

###
Rp = Q² * Rs

XLeq = XLs

143

## Formula for Resonant Frequency of a practical parallel resonance circuit

### Fr = { 1 / (2π*√(LC)) } * √( Q² / (1 + Q²) )

144

## Approximate Formula for Resonant Frequency of a practical parallel resonance circuit when Q >= 10

### Fr = { 1 / (2π*√(LC)) }

145

## Quality factor (Q) is a property measured only when the circuit is currently in ____________

### Resonance

146

## an Inductor's Voltage is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the current through it

###
DERIVATIVE :

V = L * di/dt (FARADAY'S LAW)

147

## an Inductor's current is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the voltage across it

###
INTEGRAL:

i = (1/L) * ∫ v*dt

148

## a Capacitor's Voltage is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the current through it

###
INTEGRAL:

V = Q / C = (1/C) * ∫ i*dt (From Q = CV)

149

## a Capacitor's current is proportional to the (derivative/integral) of the voltage across it

###
DERIVATIVE :

i = C * dv/dt

150

## At time = 0 seconds, Inductors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

### Open

151

## At time = ∞ seconds, Inductors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

### Short

152

## At time = 0 seconds, Capacitors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

### Short

153

## At time = ∞ seconds, Capacitors act like a/an (open/short) Circuit

### Open

154

## Formula for Transient Voltage of RL Circuit, Discharging

###
VL = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))

Vr = E*e^( -t / τ)

τ - Time Constant ( τ = L/R )

155

## Formula for Transient Voltage of RC Circuit, Discharging

###
Vc = E*e^( -t / τ)

Vr = E*( 1 - e^( -t / τ))

τ - Time Constant ( τ = RC )

156

## At τ = 1 time constant, A capacitor is charged at ____% of the applied voltage

### 63.2%

157

## At τ = 2 time constant, A capacitor is charged at ____% of the applied voltage

### 86.5%

158

## At τ = 5 time constant, A capacitor is charged at ____% of the applied voltage

### 100%

159

## Formula for Alpha (α) in an RLC Transient analysis

###
α = R / 2L

R - Resistance (ohm)

L - Inductance (H)

160

## Formula for Beta (β) in an RLC Transient analysis

###
β = Sqrt ( α² - (1/LC) )

α - R / 2L

R - Resistance (ohm)

L - Inductance (H)

C - Capacitance (F)

161

## When β is Positive, the transient circuit is ______

### Overdamped

162

## When β is equal to 0, the transient circuit is ______

### Critically damped

163

## When β is imaginary (due to square root), the transient circuit is ______

### Underdamped

164

## instantateous current value (i) of an overdamped circuit

### i = { E / 2*β*L } * { e^[(α + β)*t] - e^[(α - β)*t] }

165

## instantateous current value (i) of a critically damped circuit

### i = (E*t / L) * e^(α*t)

166

## instantateous current value (i) of an underdamped circuit

### i = { e^(α*t) } * { (E / β*L) * sinβt }

167

## β for a Transient Circuit is also called ________

###
Damped Circuit Discriminant:

β > 0 --- Overdamped

β = 0 --- Critically Damped

β is imaginary --- Underdamped

168

## The average(dc) value of the input voltage to a Halfwave/Fullwave rectifier is _____

###
0 Volts

(because input is usually pure AC)

169

## Formula for The RMS value of the input voltage to a Halfwave/Fullwave rectifier is _____

###
0.707 * Vp

(because input is usually pure AC)

170

## Formula for The RMS value of the output voltage to a Halfwave rectifier is _____

### Vrmsout = 0.5 * Vp

171

## Formula for The RMS value of the output voltage to a Fullwave rectifier is _____

### Vrmsout = 0.707 * Vp

172

## Form Factor of Half Wave Output Voltage

### FFhw = 1.57

173

## Form Factor of Full Wave Output Voltage

### FFfw = 1.11

174

## Ripple Factor of Half Wave Output Voltage

### RFhw = 1.21

175

## Ripple Factor of Full Wave Output Voltage

### RFfw = 0.48

176

## The diodes in a half wave rectifier must have a Peak Inverse Voltage greater than or equal to __________

### Input Vp

177

## The diodes in a Full wave bridge rectifier must have a Peak Inverse Voltage greater than or equal to __________

### Input Vp

178

## The diodes in a Full wave Center Tapped rectifier must have a Peak Inverse Voltage greater than or equal to __________

### 2 * (Input Vp)

179

## Maximum Flux (Φ) in a transformer coil

###
Φ = Bm * A

Bm - Max. Flux Density (in Tesla)

A - Core Cross Sectional Area (m^2)

180

## In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the PRIMARY WINDINGS are in Δ formation (either Δ-Δ or Δ-Y), the PRIMARY line's ______ is √3 times the Primary Winding's __________

###
Current, Current

I(Line,Pri) = √3 * I(Winding, Pri)

181

## In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the PRIMARY WINDINGS are in Y formation (either Y-Δ or Y-Y), the PRIMARY line's ______ is √3 times the Primary Winding's __________

###
Voltage, Voltage

V(Line,Pri) = √3 * V(Winding, Pri)

182

## In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the SECONDARY WINDINGS are in Δ formation (either Δ-Δ or Y-Δ), the SECONDARY line's ______ is √3 times the Secondary Winding's __________

###
Current, Current

I(Line,Sec) = √3 * I(Winding, Sec)

183

## In a 3-Phase Transformer, when the SECONDARY WINDINGS are in Y formation (either Δ-Y or Y-Y), the SECONDARY line's ______ is √3 times the Secondary Winding's __________

###
Voltage, Voltage

V(Line,Sec) = √3 * V(Winding, Sec)

184

## Formula for Turns ratio of Primary to secondary coil to obtain a specific Primary-to-secondary Voltage ratio

### Vpri / Vsec = Npri / Nsec

185

## Formula for Turns ratio of Primary to secondary coil to obtain a specific Primary-to-secondary Current ratio

### Ipri / Isec = Nsec / Npri

186

## When Primary and secondary coils of a 3-Phase Transformer have the same formation (Δ-Δ or Y-Y), the Phasor diagram of the Primary input is _______ with the Phasor diagram of the secondary output

### in phase / Same phasor diagram

187

## When Primary and secondary coils of a 3-Phase Transformer have a different formation (Δ-Y or ΔY), the Phasor diagram of the Primary input is _______ with the Phasor diagram of the secondary output

### 30 degrees Out of Phase

188

## Formula for Average(dc) voltage output of a 3-Phase Single Way Rectifier

### Vdc = 0.827 * Vp

189

## Formula for RMS voltage output of a 3-Phase Single Way Rectifier

### Vrms = 0.841 * Vp

190

## Formula for Average(dc) voltage output of a 3-Phase Double Way Rectifier

### Vdc = 0.955 * Vp

191

## Formula for RMS voltage output of a 3-Phase Double Way Rectifier

### Vrms = 0.95577 * Vp

192

## A 3-Phase Single Way Rectifier is analogous to a ________ Rectifier when in Single Phase

### Half Wave

193

## A 3-Phase Double Way Rectifier is analogous to a ________ Rectifier when in Single Phase

### Full Wave

194

## Total Transformer loss is the sum of _________ loss and ________ loss

### Copper, core

195

## Core losses are comprised of ______ loss and _______ loss

### Eddy Current, Hysteresis

196

## Why Eddy Current Losses occur is due to the fact that _____

### Core is exposed to changing magnetic field as well, and since it is a conductor, a current and voltage is also induced in it

197

## Solution to mitigate Eddy Current losses

###
Laminate the core

or

use Dielectrics(also insulators) like ferrites

198

## Formula for Hysteresis Loss

###
W(hysteresis) = ηh * f * (Bm^1.6)

ηh - Hysteresis coefficient

f - frequency

Bm - Max. Flux Density

199

## Why Hysteresis Losses occur is due to the fact that _____

### a core is retentive: magnetic domains inside the core cannot keep up with the changing magnetic field, creating a lagging effect in the magnetic change, causing friction

200

##
MEAN VALUE THEOREM:

AVERAGE VALUE OF ANY WAVEFORM

###
AVERAGE = (1 / (b - a)) * ∫( f(x) dx , a(lower limit) , b(upper limit )

a and b are the specific period points on the function/waveform of inqiury

f(x)-waveform equation with respect to time

201

##
MEAN VALUE THEOREM:

RMS VALUE OF ANY WAVEFORM

###
RMS = SQRT{ (1 / (b - a)) * ∫( f(x)² dx , a(lower limit) , b(upper limit ) }

a and b are the specific period points on the function/waveform of inqiury

f(x)-waveform equation with respect to time

202

## The Ripple Factor is also known as ______

### Percentage Ripple (%ripple)

203

## Formula for Ripple RMS Voltage

###
V(ripple)rms = √( Vrms(FW/HW)² - Vdc(FW/HW)² )

Vrms(FW/HW) - RMS of FW/HW output

Vdc(FW/HW) - AVE of FW/HW output

204

## Alternative Ripple Factor Formula (involving C-Filter and Load Resistance at the FW/HW outpit)

###
r = 1 / (4√3 * f*C*R)

f - Frequency

C - Capacitance

R - Load Resistance

205

## Formula for peak-to-peak Ripple Voltage of a halfwave rectifier (including C-Filter)

###
Vrpp = Idc / fC

Idc - Direct Current (DC) Current in the circuit

f - Frequency

C - Capacitance

206

## Formula for peak-to-peak Ripple Voltage of a Fullwave rectifier (including C-Filter)

###
Vrpp = Idc / 2fC

Idc - Direct Current (DC) Current in the circuit

f - Frequency

C - Capacitance

207

## Formula for Average(dc) Voltage of a C-filter output

###
Vave = Vp(FW/HW) - (Vrpp(FW/HW) / 2)

Vp(FW/HW) - FW/HW Output Peak voltage (not ripple)

Vrpp(FW/HW) - peak-to-peak ripple voltage, either fullwave or halfwave

208

## Formula for Peak Ripple Voltage

###
Vrp = √3 * Vr(rms)

Vrp - Ripple Peak Voltage

Vr(rms) - Ripple RMS Voltage

209

## Alternative Ripple RMS Voltage for Halfwave Rectifiers

###
Vr(rms)HW = 0.386 * Vp

Vp - Halfwave output peak voltage

210

## Alternative Ripple RMS Voltage for Fullwave Rectifiers

###
Vr(rms)FW = 0.308 * Vp

Vp - Fullwave output peak voltage

211

## The four parts of a Voltage Regulator

###
1.) Series/Shunt Element

2.) Comparator

3.) Sampling Circuit

4.) Reference Voltage

212

## Formula for Load Voltage of a Simple Series Voltage Regulator

###
VL = Vo = Vz - VBE

Vz - Zener Voltage

VBE - Voltage across BE junction of BJT Series Element(usually 0.7)

213

## Formula for Load Voltage of a Simple Shunt Voltage Regulator

###
VL = Vo = Vz + VBE

Vz - Zener Voltage

VBE - Voltage across BE junction of BJT Series Element(usually 0.7)

214

## In a Series Voltage Regulator, what part of the voltage regulator is in series with the load resistor?

### Series element (usually BJT)

215

## In a Shunt Voltage Regulator, what part of the voltage regulator is in parallel with the load resistor?

### Shunt element (usually BJT)

216

## What Device is usually used to provide the reference voltage of a voltage regulator?

### Zener Diode

217

## In a Fixed Voltage Regulator, the maximum input voltage allowed is usually ___________

### Twice its rated output voltage

218

## In a Fixed Voltage Regulator, the Minimum Input Voltage for operation is approximately ________

###
+-(Rated output voltage) +-2

+- depends on whether positive or negative supply

219

## For Positive Fixed Voltage regulators, We use the ________ Family of ICs

### 7800 Series

220

## For Negative Fixed Voltage regulators, We use the ________ Family of ICs

### 7900

221

## The most famous IC used as an adjustable voltage regulator is the _______

### LM317

222

## The adjustable range of the LM317 IC

### 1.2 - 3.7 Volts

223

## Formula for output voltage of an LM317 IC

###
Vo = Vref * (1 + R2/R1) + (Iadj * R2)

Iadj - Current coming from the adjustment leg of the LM317

R2 - Potentiometer, whose ends are connected to the ADJ leg and the ground of the circuit

R1 - Fixed resistor, whose ends are connected to the ADJ leg and the OUT leg of the LM317

Vref - Voltage across OUT leg and the ADJ leg

224

## Typical value for Vref in LM317

### Vref = 1.25 V

225

## Typical Value for Iadj in LM317

### Iadj = 100μA

226

## Ideal Load/Voltage Regulation Value is ________

### 0%

227

## No Load Voltage (>,

### V(NL) > V(FL)

228

## Formula for Source Regulation/Line Regulation

###
%SR = (Vh - Vl) / Vl x 100%

Vh - highest output voltage

Vl - Lowest output voltage

"SUSO, LAWLAW"

229

## Ideal Line/Source Regulation Value is ________

### 0%

230

## What does stability factor determine?

### It Measures how effective the regulator is

231

## A Positive Clamper has its Diode arrow pointing _______ the Capacitor

### Toward

232

## A Negative Clamper has its Diode arrow pointing _______ the Capacitor

### Away from

233

## A clamper consists of:

### A Capacitor, a Diode, and the load in parallel to the diode

234

## Another Term for Halfwave voltage doubler/tripler/quadrupler/etc

### Villard Cascade

235