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Flashcards in SpecialNeedsFinal Deck (94):
1

What is defined as a long lasting health condition that limits a person’s ability to see or hear, physical activity of mental capabilities?

Impairment

2

What is defined as personal limitations that representt a substantial disadvantage when attempting to function in society?

Disability

3

What is defined as a group of malformations, deformations and malformation sequences, etc. that occur together due to some identifiable underlying cause?

Syndrome

4

What is defined as A disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills that originates before the age of 18?

Intellectual Disability

5

Intellectual disability is defined as originating before WHAT AGE?

18

6

What is the MOST COMMON developmental disability and how many people are affected by it?

intellectual disability...6.2-7.5 million people

7

What % of people with intellectual disability have MILD impairment?

87%

8

What is the usual cause of an intellectual disability?

it is usually unknown

9

Developmental Disabilities: often occur in the _______ period and manifest before age ___.

developmental...22

10

Developmental Disabilities: Often present at ______

BIRTH

11

Developmental Disabilities: What are the 4 types?

1.Intellectual Disability 2.Cerebral Palsy 3.Epilepsy 4.Autism

12

Instead of saying birth defect, we say

congenital disability

13

Informed consent is grounded in the principle of patient ________

autonomy

14

What is the process of communication
between a doctor and patient in which a patient grants
permission for the proposed treatment?

informed consent

15

What are 2 examples of acceptable witnesses to informed consent?

1.dental staff 2.NON-relative to patient

16

How many titles are there of the ADA and which one is most relevant to dentists? What year was the ADA passed?

5 titles.... Title III is relevant because we are preforming a public service..1990

17

Wheelchair accessibility: Minimum width of hall and passageways is ___ feet for wheelchair to pass through.

3 feet

18

Wheelchair accessibility: Need at least __ feet (in diameter ) circle to turn a wheel chair around

5 feet

19

Wheelchair accessibility: Best to treat patient in WHICH CHAIR?? if possible...

the DENTAL CHAIR

20

Behavioral Hx: 1. Ability to _______

communicate

21

Behavioral Hx: 2. Reactions to sensory ______ such as noise, touch, and light

stimuli

22

Behavioral Hx: 3. Stereotypic _______

behaviors

23

Behavioral Hx: 4. Previous _______/______ experiences?

dental/medical

24

What protocol is this??? Need to identify type and likelihood of risk associated with the specific dental procedure...

Risk Assessment

25

Medical Consult: To request _______ when signs of systemic disease are discovered in the dental office (i.e. hypertension, syncope)

EVALUATION

26

Medical Consult: To request specific __________ necessary for appropriate treatment modifications.

information

27

Medical Consult: To determine whether or not providing dental treatment is _______, given patient’s health conditions

prudent

28

Medical Consult: To request a _______ in patient’s therapy in order to benefit oral health

CHANGE

29

Medical Consult: IS NOT!!!!! clearance or __________ for treatment!!!!

permission

30

What is the MOST COMMON malformation syndrome?

Downs Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

31

In Trisomy 21: What is the typical range of intellectual disability? What is the average IQ?

moderate to severe...50

32

What % of people with Downs Syndrome have congenital heart defects?

40-50%

33

People with Down Syndrome may have Impaired _______ – specifically, impaired _______ function

immunity...NEUTROPHIL

34

What % of people with Down Syndrome have hypothyroidism?

16-20%

35

In people with Trisomy 21: ______ anomalies are common

AIRWAY

36

What % of people with Trisomy 21 have atlanto-axial instability?

14%

37

Dental characteristics of Trisomy 21: Which teeth present as missing or peg-shaped?

lateral incisors

38

Oral Findings of Trisomy 21:  Maxillary _______ (frequently resulting in crowding and/or impactions)

hypoplasia

39

Oral Findings of Trisomy 21: Class ____ malocclusion

III

40

Oral Findings of Trisomy 21:  Anomalies in tooth number and morphology (_________)

taurodontism

41

Oral Findings of Trisomy 21: Increased incidence of _______ disease, may present as early as ________

periodontal...childhood!

42

Oral Findings of Trisomy 21: Relative ________ (because of maxillary hypoplasia)

macroglossia

43

_________ is a chronic disorder of movement or coordination, caused by injury to the immature brain during the prenatal or perinatal period

Cerebral Palsy

44

CP is a developmental disability characterized by damage to the ______ areas in the developing brain.

motor

45

CP is a ______ encephalopathy; that is, the original brain lesion DOES NOT PROGRESS or enlarge

STATIC

46

What type of CP is characterized by increased muscle tone, tightness, and stiff-jerky movements? What % of cases?

Spastic....70-80 %

47

What type of CP is characterized by Low muscle tone, loose-uncontrolled body movement? What % of cases?

Dyskinetic....10-15%

48

Which type of CP is characterized by affected balance and depth perception? What % of cases?

Ataxic... less than 5%

49

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: _________ infections

intrauterine

50

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: Maternal exposure to toxic or _______ agents

teratogenic

51

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: Material abdominal _______

trauma

52

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: if the mom gives multiple _____

births

53

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: These hyper CNS events...

seizures

54

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: Premature birth (____)

less than 32 weeks

55

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: Low birth weight (less than _____g or ___lbs)

2500g (5.5 lbs)

56

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: Intracranial ________

hemorrhage

57

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: _______ and/or bradycardia

Hypoxia

58

Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy: Hyper_______emia

hyperbillirubemia

59

WHAT IS An umbrella term used for a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement?

Muscular Dystrophy

60

In Muscular Dystrophy, which type of muscle may or may not be involved?

cardiac/other involuntary muscle

61

These are all under the umbrella term of ________: Duchenne, Becker, Fascioscapulohumeral, Emery-Dreyfus, Limb-girdle, Myotonic, Congenital

muscular dystrophy

62

Are muscular dystrophy oral characteristics progressive?

yes

63

Muscular Dystrophy – Oral Characteristics: Anterior _______ , ______glossia, and/or (term for excessive saliva)

open bite, macroglossia, sialorreha

64

Muscular Dystrophy – Oral Characteristics: ________ of maxillary and mandibular arches

EXPANSION

65

Muscular Dystrophy – Oral Characteristics: Similar to CP – patients with gait problems are at increase risk for dental ______

trauma

66

What type of seizure? Brief, shock like jerk of muscle or groups of muscles, Affects neck, shoulders, upper arms, body and upper legs, Duration

MYO-CLONIC

67

What are the two AntiConvulsant meds we discussed with oral complications?

Phenytoin and Carbamazepine

68

Phenytoin Oral Side effects: Gingival ________, Scrupulous dental care, visits every ___ months, Consider the use of chlorhexidine and _______ rinses...Severe cases require surgical reduction

hyperplasia...3 months, folic acid

69

Carbamazepine: ________ and stomatitis with increased caries, Consider use of topical _______ to reduce incidence of caries

XEROSTOMIA...flouride

70

Patients with seizures can receive dental treatment when they are rare: less than _____ / year

1x/year

71

If a seizure last longer than 5 minutes or is repetitive, it is _________

status epilepticus

72

Osteogenesis Imperfecta is what type of inheritance? What type of collagen synthesis is affected?

Autosomal Dominant...Type I Collagen

73

Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome is what type of inheritance?....Commonly found in old order ______ population due to the “founder effect”

Autosomal Recessive..Amish

74

Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome is AKA ___________ Dysplasia

Chondroectodermal

75

What is responsible for the LARGEST PERCENTAGE OF BIRTH DEFECTS?

Multifactorial Inheritance

76

These three disorders are a result of ________: Asthma, Coronary Artery disease, Alzheimer Disease

multifactorial inheritance

77

What is the common presentation with all of these syndromes? Crouzon Syndrome  Apert Syndrome
 Pfeiffer Syndrome

CRANIO-SYNO-TOSIS

78

Which syndrome? Abnormal skull shape, Ocular hypertelorism, proptosis, beaked nose  Obstructive apnea...WHAT TYPE OF INHERITANCE IS IT?

CROU-ZON...Autosomal Dominant

79

Autism is diagnosed based on _______

BEHAVIOR

80

Etiology of Autism is currently ________; however many theories exist: Genetic, Neurotransmitter defect ________, Infection, Metabolic error, Immunologic disorder, Environmental (exposure to toxins in utero or early childhood)

UNKNOWN....seratonin

81

What % of people with Autism also have intellectual disability?

70%

82

What % of people with Autism also have seizure disorders?

30%

83

_______ is diagnosed when there is sufficient severity to interfere with daily functioning!

dementia

84

What % range of dementia is considered Alzheimers Disease?

40-65%

85

What is the prevalence of Alzheimers Disease in people over 85 years old???

47%. holy shit.

86

What is the average life span of people with AD?

8-10 years (range 3-20 years)

87

_______ program: Purpose is to investigate and resolve complaints of residents of nursing facilities, board and care facilities, and other adult care homes

Ombudsman

88

Elder abuse affects an estimated ____ million older Americans, but some estimates can say its __x that amount...

2.1 million...5x

89

A dentist who fails to report elder abuse can be guilty of a class ___ misdemeanor

class 1

90

_________ is the most prevalent unmet health
need among children with special health care needs.*

dental care

91

Combination of _______ status & membership in an underserved racial or ethnic group associated with a greater magnitude of disparity in all 3 areas.”

disability

92

What does WISH stand for?

W: Wound healing ability, I:Immune strength S:Stress toleration, H: Hemostasis

93

What are the three types of consent?

Explicit, Implied, Specific

94

Which type of consent is needed for Dental extractions, implants or bone recontouring?

Specific