Speech and Language Flashcards Preview

Clinical Neuroscience weeks 1-3 > Speech and Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Speech and Language Deck (34):
1

Define Speech

Communication through vocalized sounds that form spoken words and sentences

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Phonation

Direct sounds produced by the larynx

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Phoneme

a distinct sound that carries contrast with others

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Dysphonia

Disturbance of phonation causing alteration of volume

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Dysarthria

Disturbance of articulation caused by impaired motor control resulting in slurred speech

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Mutism

absence of phonation

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How to assess for spontaneous speech:

Have a subject read, repeat selected phrases
Listen for speech volume, rate of speech, articulation

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Language definition

system of arbitrary symbols that permits communication of thoughts, idea, emotions

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Aphasia

Loss of ability for spoken and written language

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Alexia

Loss of ability to read when no visual impairment exists

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Agraphia

Loss of the ability to write when no motor impairment exists.

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Paraphasia

language errors due to word or sound substitution

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Semantic paraphasia

substitution of one word for another

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Phonemic paraphrasia

substitution of one sound for another

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Neologism

Creation of meaningless words

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Semantics

The meaning or interpretation of a word, sentence, or other languge form

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Syntax

System of rules (grammar)

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Prosody

Tone, inflection that ads to meaning of words

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Main language areas

Broca's areas (44,45) and Wernicke's (22)

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Broca Aphasia- lesion in Broca Area

- Expressive or Motor Aphasia
Non-fluent speech and difficulty with syntax
Grammar and production of individualized words
Comprehension is intact

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Lesion of arcuate fasciculus?

Conduction Aphasia- DIfficulty repeating words. Both comprehension and production of language intact

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Wernicke Aphasia

Receptive or sensory aphasia, fluent speech, syntax, grammar intact.
Difficulty with comprehension of speech

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Over 95% of right handed people show dominance in what hemisphere

Left

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Over 65% of left handed people are what hemisphere dominant

Left, 15-20% are right, the remainder have mixed

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Left hemisphere functions in a left dominant person?

Speech, writing, lexical and syntactic language

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Right hemisphere functions in a left dominant person

Rudimentary speech
Emotional coloring of language

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Six components of language testing

- Expression- normal verbal output 100-150 words per minute
- Comprehension- test ability to follow complex and simple commands
- Repitition- Ask subject to repeat single words and phrases
- Reading- Ask subject to read aloud and follow a written command
- Writing- ask subject to write a simple sentence
- Naming- Ask subject to identify common objects

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Broca's Aphasia

reduced verbal putput
single words or short phrases
words restricted to nouns, verbs, adjectives
Limited Use of syntactical words
Comprehension relatively spared, but some trouble in understanding complex syntactical language
Poor repititions, paraphrasias common.

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Wernicke's Aphasia

- Verbal output normal or increased.
- Sentences devoid of meaningful language...nouns reploaced by pronouns and prepositions
- Comprehension seriously impacted
- Lesion location- Brodman's area 22

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Global aphasia

- both expressive and receptive language function impaired.
- Non-fluent, common paraphasic errors
- Lesion involves large area of left hemisphere

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Conduction aphasia

comprehension and fluency are relatively good but repition is poor
- Lesion in supramarginal gyrus and arcuate fasciculus

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Transcortical motor aphasia

- uncommon aphasia similar to Broca's except that subjects are able to repeat
- Lesion is left nterir frontal lobe, either superior or inferior to Broca's area

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Transcortical sensory aphasia

similar to wernicke's except that subjects are able to repeat. Lesion is in left border zone between left middle cerebral arteries and posterior cerebral arteries

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Mixed transcortical aphasia

uncommon aphasia similar to global aphasia except pts are able to repeat