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Flashcards in Spina Bifida Deck (27):
1

What is spina bifida?

A condition that refers to a developmental defect of the spinal column in which the arches of one or more of the spinal vertebrae fail to fuse
Failure of closure in the midline or lower end of the neural tube

2

when does spina bifida occur?

This process is usually complete by the 28th day of pregnancy
If problems occur during this process, the result can be brain disorders called neural tube defects including spina bifida

3

What is the most common type of spina bifida

occulta Approx 40% of all Americans may have spina bifida occulta, but because they experience little or no symptoms, very few of them ever know they have it

4

Why do some people not know they have it?

because they experience little or no symptoms, very few of them ever know they have it Is the mildest and most common form in which one or more vertebrae are malformed

5

The name occulta means

hidden indicates that the malformation or opening in the spine is covered by a layer of skin

6

occultas prognosis

This form of spina bifida rarely causes disability or symptoms

7

What is Cystica

Closed neural tube defects make up for this type of
spina bifida
This form consists of a diverse group of spinal defects in which the spinal cord is marked by a malformation of fat, bone, or membranes

8

What are the symptoms for Cystica

In some patients there are few or no symptoms; in others the malformation causes incomplete paralysis with urinary and bowel dysfunction

9

2 types of Cystica

Meningocele- where the meninges protrude through the defect (4%) may have few or no symptoms others may experience symptoms similar to closed neural tube defects
Myelomeningocele- elements of the cord also protrude through the defect, resulting in severe neural deficits (96%)1 out of 1,000 births. Spinal cord is exposed through the opening in the spine, resulting in partial or complete paralysis of the parts of the body below the spinal opening

10

Myelomeningocele affects ambulatory how ambulation

The paralysis may be so severe that the affected individual is non-ambulatory and may have urinary and bowel dysfunction

11

Complications with Myelomeningocele

hydrocephalus
May need a shunt
May develop menigitis,
May develop learning disabilities
May also suffer from latex allergies, skin problems, urinary tract infections, skin problems, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal disorders, seizure disorders, depression and social and emotional problems

12

What is hydrocephalus?

disease that occurs when there is a build up of CNS fluid inside the brain that occurs when normal circulation is obstructed because the open spine permits the lower portion of the brain to slip through the opening of the spinal cord
Skull is stretched
Damages brain cells

13

Causes of Spina Bifida

Genetics and environemental factors Low folic acid consumption during pregnancy

14

Risk Factors

Hispanics and whites of European descent
Family history
Diabetes:
Obesity:
Increased body temperature

15

When to seek medical attention?

Before pregnancy
During pregnancy
Right after pregnancy
When the doctor feels it’s necessary

16

Screening and Diagnosis

Prenatal Tests
Evaluation
Imaging studies
Gait analysis

17

Prevention
Women should take folic acid pills before they try getting pregnant (can reduce SB by 75%)

Women should take folic acid pills before they try getting pregnant (can reduce SB by 75%)

18

Treatment

No cure
Regular check ups with physician
Surgery (24 hours after birth)
Medication
Therapy

19

Assistive devices

Some may need: braces, crutches, wheelchairs. Depends on the location of malformation
Deficits related to spinal leve

20

Above L3:

complete paraplegia and dermatomal Paranesthesia, bladder incontinence, nonambulatory

21

L4 and below:

same as for above L3 except preservation of hip flexors, hip adductors, knee extensors; ambulatory with aids, bracing orthopedic surgery

22

S1 and below:

same as for L4 and below except preservation of feet dorsiflexors and partial preservation of hip extensors and knee flexors; ambulatory with minimal aids

23

S3 and below:

Normal lower extremity motor function; Saddle anesthesia; variable bladder-rectal incontinence
Activites and Exercise

24

Body Awareness, intervention

Group Play, Parachute activities, Upper body activities, strength training, aquatics, flexibility, relays, wheel chair activities

25

Goals of Intervention:

Teaching gross motor and spatial skills to facilitate coordination
Developing and maintaining fitness and flexibility to emphasize self-sufficiency
Encouraging movement and fitness to overcome susceptibility to obesity

26

Meningocele- explain what protrudes and symptoms.

Meningocele- where the meninges protrude through the defect (4%) may have few or no symptoms others may experience symptoms similar to closed neural tube defects

27

Myelomeningocele- what protrudes and what are the symptoms

elements of the cord also protrude through the defect, resulting in severe neural deficits (96%)1 out of 1,000 births. Spinal cord is exposed through the opening in the spine, resulting in partial or complete paralysis of the parts of the body below the spinal opening