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Flashcards in SPOL220 Deck (12):

Name 2 ways that industrial capitalism contributed to the emergence of welfare states in Europe?

Prior to industrialisation welfare was dealt with at the local level but as people migrated to the cities they lost traditional welfare support.
Individualisation of wage system -
Women brought out of the home as they no longer are able to maintain their position as a productive entity (I.e clothes food) and in to work force, elderly, sick and young now have no one to care for them.
Health declined during this time due to working and living conditions as well.


Describe the key characteristics of Esping Andersen's 3 models of welfare regimes and name the corresponding states that Esping Andersen thinks best exemplifying them ?

Liberal - (USA, U.K., Austrailia) means tested; modest universal benefits; benefits for poor; strict entitlement rules; stigma; private insurers encouraged. Stratification =dualism/decommodification = low
Conservative - (Germany, Austria, France) little concern with market efficiency and commodification; social rights untoriversial bu depend on status; state mandated insurance; encourage gender roles through benefits (D=medium/S=high)
Social Democratic - (Scandinavia) high quality services and benefits; care for children and elderly; full employment aim (D= high S=low)


Briefly explain the concept of decommodification?

Defined by Esping Andersen as the extent to which individuals and families can afford an acceptable tpstandard of lift independently of market participation
Decommodification occurs when a service is rendered as a matter of right and when a person can maintain livelihood without reliance on the market


Which New Zealand government passed the employment contracts act, and in what year ? Briefly outline the significance to NZ social policy history.

National, 1991
Unionism unravels, greater worker inequality. Poverty rose


name 2 international organisations that an can affect social policy of the states and describe how they do so

WHO (world health, NATO, WTO (world trade) UN, EU, DWB (doctors without borders)
they influence policy through research, agenda setting and the development of knowledge frameworks; policy based lending and project conditionally; establishing global codes, rules and norms.


Explain 2 different ways of measuring poverty

Th fixed line - (constant value approach) anchors the poverty line in a regency year, then adjust it each survey with the CPI
The moving line - (relative approach) sets the poverty line as a proportion of the median income from each survey so the threshold changes as incomes do
Material wellbeing as means of testing poverty


What is fuel poverty?

Defined as when a household needs to spend more than 10% of its income on household fuels to achieve a satisfactory warm indoor environment
WHO recommends 19-21 degrees


What's was his,arks contributing to the welfare state/ his views?

Insurance is compulsory
Entitlement based on employment/membership not citizenship


What are the basic elements of a beverage welfare system?

Flat rates
Cradle to grave mentality
State responsible for its citizens wellbeing
Funded via taxation


What are Timuss' 3 models of social policy?

residual welfare model - state involved on outskirts. Family and work relations
Industrial achievement model - significant role of state, entitlement to support based on merit and productivity
Industrial redistribution model - states plays lead role/integrated into society, value social equality, state largest contributor or welfare services.


Briefly explain stratification

Welfare systems which act to stratify society through means testing, poor relief ect... Constructs notions of a lower class


What distinguishes the Anglo-American approach to protecting children from abuse?

Threshold systems - minimum levels of dysfunction in order to qualify for state attention
Adversarial legal system ,social workers as evidence gatherers and can remove the child from a harmful situation.
Risk assessment tools