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ATAR Physical Education yr 11 > Sport Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sport Psychology Deck (22)
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1

explain some relaxation techniques

Music Listen to music that promotes enthusiasm or is associated with heroic efforts e.g. Rocky, Remember the Titans, Danger Zone.
Music is personal preference – not one song fits all as it may cause some players to become over aroused.
The music should be up-tempo with a rhythmic beat.

Pre game routine Performance routines before the game can be used to increase arousal levels
E.g. The All Black Haka is a pre-game performance ritual which increases their arousal level and aims to decrease the self-confidence of their opponents

2

ex[plain mental imagery

We know that the mind is a powerful tool that controls how we think and perform

While talking (to yourself or others), the use of emotive words such as tough, aggressive, hard-hitting, dependable, forceful, strong & commitment has been found to increase arousal levels

3

explain what positive self talk is

We know that the mind is a powerful tool that controls how we think and perform

While talking (to yourself or others), the use of emotive words such as tough, aggressive, hard-hitting, dependable, forceful, strong & commitment has been found to increase arousal levels

4

explain how skill level and type off activity effect motivation and arousal levels

Influence of age The ability to maintain concentration is heavily influenced by age
Typically the younger the individual, the more likely they are to lose focus on a regular basis
This is important for coaches who must reduce the length of drills and activities in order to maintain the attention of the individuals
As a result older children learn faster than younger children because of a longer attention and concentration span

Influence of skill level The ability of an individual to attend to relevant stimuli is influenced by their skill level
As discussed earlier, highly skilled athletes are better able to attend to relevant stimuli whilst ignoring distractions
As a result, when coaching less skilled participants, coaches must provide more predictable, closed environments, allowing the players to focus on a reduced number of stimuli
As the players become more skilled, the environment can become more open, allowing the individuals to develop the ability to filter out distractions whilst also shifting their attention from one stimuli to the next.

Influence of activity type Activities that provide constantly changing stimuli are more likely to maintain the attention and focus of an individual
This is further enhanced by whether an individual finds the task enjoyable
Compare the attentional demands of a soccer goal keeper to a midfielder
The soccer goal keeper is able to switch off whilst the ball is at the opposite end of the field whilst the midfielder must maintain concentration at all times.

5

explain how stress can effect an athletes gameplay

An athlete needs to have a certain level of stress to produce optimal performance.
Too little stress results in boredom, low motivation and poor performance
Optimum stress levels produce best performance
Too high stress levels negatively affect performance
Stress can either be;
Physical which is the body’s reaction to different triggers
Emotional which occurs when a person finds the demands placed on them become too big or difficult to manage

6

explain self confidence

An athletes confidence is influenced by two main factors

Self efficacy
Self belief

Confident players believe in themselves & their abilities (both physical & mental) to reach their potential.

7

explain intrisic motivation

Intrinsic motivation in sport refers to internal motivations that result from the process of participation in sport.

Intrinsic motivation would include;
Playing for enjoyment
Social affiliation
Self-challenge
Thrill seeking e.g. big wave surfing

8

define arousal

The amount of readiness a person experiences when faced with a task

9

What happens when an individual is over aroused
Excessive tension nervous the performance will decrees

Excessive tension nervous the performance will decrees

10

What happens physically when someone is under aroused

peformace will drop
They will be relaxed and lack motivation

11

1. Motivation can be enhanced intrinsically and extrinsically. Identify which of these are dominant for different age groups and differing skill levels?

As age increases the more intrinsic the motivation.
This can be graphed in a reverse exponential manner (age v motivation type).
This is exactly the same for skill level (i.e. more skilled = more intrinsic).

12

1. Identify and explain two methods/techniques we could employ to enhance our motivation?

Goal setting, role models/leaders, role allocation = ownership.

13

Concentration is our ability to focus on the task at hand for extended periods of time. What is the correlation between skill level and concentration?

Successful athletes are less likely too be distracted by irrelevant cues, can focus broadly and switch too narrow, can cope with both internal and external cues

14

1. Identify three traits of successful athletes when it comes to concentration?

Not distracted by irrelevant cues; Task (not outcome) focused;
Can switch between broad and narrow focus easily;
Can cope with internal & external cues without overload.

15

1. Niddeffer’s Model of Attentional Awareness outlines four main zones of focus. Summarise the following zones with a very brief explanation and example for each!

BROAD INTERNAL:

*Thoughts and feelings
*Big picture / Game plan

BROAD EXTERNAL:

*Opponents actions
*Quick evaluation of opponents movement
NARROW INTERNAL:

*Mental rehearsal of routine
*Visualising the performance
NARROW EXTERNAL:

*Focus on tennis ball alone
*Watching shuttle cock

16

10. Arousal regulation is our state of ‘readiness’. It is often more physiological than psychological and can be paired with motivation levels.
Complete the following grid relating to under and over arousal levels:

UNDER

An athlete will display: Lack motivation/interest, lack concentration.

Cue detection and performance: irrelevant cues

OVER

An athlete will display: Increased muscle tension, too much activity

Cue detection and performance Cannot detect relevant cues

17

1. Identify and three methods to reduce arousal levels:

PMR, CENTRED BREATHING, BODY READING, BIOFEEDBACK, CALMING MUSIC, MEDITATION,

18

1. Identify and explain three methods to increase arousal levels:

PRE-COMP/N PSYCH UP – SPEECH/TALK/MUSIC, BREATHING RATE ↑,
IMAGERY, GOAL SETTING, SELF TALK

19

determines our ability to deal with both cognitive and physical anxieties during practical performances. Identify 5 physiological changes that can occur when an athlete is affected by stress?

ADRENALIN ↑, ↑ HR, ↑ BR, PUPIL DILATION, ↑ BODY TEMP, ↑ BP, ↑ MUSCLE STRENGTH.

20

1. Define the ‘zone’?

WHEN AROUSAL, ENERGY, CONFIDENCE LEVELS ARE PEAKING. AN INTERNAL CALMNESS AND SENSE OF LOSS OF TIME CAN OCCUR.

21

Identify two physical/mental outcomes excessive levels of stress can cause?

ANXIETY, MENTAL CONFUSION, MUSCLE TENSION, IMPAIRED COORDINATION, PANIC ATATCKS, HR & BP RISE, SWEATING.

22

1. Identify and explain (using examples) three methods we can employ to reduce stress levels?

REDIRECT THOUGHTS, RELAXATION, MEDITATION, SELF TALK, IMAGERY, PRE-PERFORMANCE ROUTINES