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ATAR Physical Education yr 11 > motor learning and coaching > Flashcards

Flashcards in motor learning and coaching Deck (14)
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1

explain the difference between gross a fine motor skills with examples

gross involve
- large force is exerted
- large movements so they require large muscles they involve the whole body
-running high jump swimming

fine
- small amounts of force are exerted
- involve smaller movements for specific body parts and they require more precision and control
-like shooting throwing darts and archery

2

explain the types of movement discreate serial and continuous with examples

discreate
they have a clear beginning and ending
-eg drive in golf, shot at a goal, dive of a platform
serial
-made up of a large number off discrete skills which are put together in a certain order
-eg dance routine or a gymnastics routine
continuous
they do not have a clear beginning or an end it is impossible to determine when the skill ends and starts
-eg cycling jogging or swimming

3

often the environment can impacts the skill which is being performed explain a closed and an open skill

closed
-when the player has the greatest control over there performance in the environment and it often requires repetition off a successful movement pattern
-occur in a stable environment and the skill is pre learned and rehearsed every time
-eg gymnastics and serving in badminton
open
-when the performer is required too adapt to the execution off there skill under a constantly changing environment
- performers must use experience perceptual skills and knowledge to analyze a given situation
- eg swimming and kayaking

4

what is the purpose of feedback and what are the 2 different types

to motivate and reinforce and it is the information a performer receives about there performance prior, during or after feed back is important for improvement the performance things and the 2 types are intrinsic and extrinsic

5

what are the types of intrinsic and extrinsic feedback

intrinsic (inherent)
extrinsic (augmented) - terminal, concurrent, verbal, non verbal

6

explain the difference bettween intrinsic and extrinsic feedback

intrinsic is received from the sensory receptors inside the muscles joints and tendons these provide information to the performer about the execution off the skill

extrinsic is information received from outside the body it is seen felt or heard by the coach or instructor

7

what is knowledge of results and knowledge of performance and what are they categorized as

they are both extrinsic feedback
knowledge of results
subjective feedback which a player receives regarding the quality of the performance

knowledge of results
are objective feedback which provides the performer information regarding the success of there performance by achieving a desired outcome

8

what are the 2 different timings for extrinsic feedback and an explanation

concurrent
provided by the coach during the performance the players then use this too immediately change there performance if needed

terminal
provided by an external source directly after the movement has been completed this feed back can be used too change future performance this allow the players to evaluate there performance

9

name 3 stages of learning annd what feed back should be give

cognitive
usually for beginners the feedback will occur frequently through out the exercise
associative
for intermediate players the feedback will occur less frequently
autonomous
in advanced players and feedback will occur less frequently and will instead focus on game tactics

10

what is the difference between verbal and no verbal feedback

non verbal
the feed back is through things like hand signals and facial expressions this allows couches to give feedback quickly and is most effective when used with verbal feedback

verbal feedback
verbal feedback should be specific and not general clear and concise and is spoken by words

11

explain Fitts posners motor learning stages

cognitive: The initial phase in the learning of a motor skill where the emphasis is on conscious understanding of the task requirements

associative: The second phase in the learning of a new skill in which movement patterns become more refined and consistent through practice.

autonomous: The final phase in the learning of a new skill in which the control of movement appears to be almost automatic and free of the need for constant attention.

12

what is feedback and why is it important

Feedback is the information a performer receives about their performance of a skill. It can be given prior to, during, or after performance.

Feedback is essential to improvement as it allows the performer to compare their current performance with desired performance.

13

identify and explain the 2 purposes of feedback

1. To motivate the performer A coach can provide feedback which motivates the performer to continue to strive for improvement or to re-assure the performer that progress

To reinforce learning and provide information Feedback can be used to reinforce learning or performance which increases the chances of the behaviour being repeated.

14

how do age, skill level, fitness level, injury, level of competition and type of activity effect the learning process in sport

age: The ability of a learner to take in and process information increases as they get older along with their ability to practice for longer. Elderly participants need to be careful to avoid problems associated with the degenerative aging process

skill level The coach needs to consider the current skill level of individual athletes in the squad before structuring their training program.

A coach who plans training sessions which are too complex or too simple will not achieve the optimum level of skill development with the group

fitness level Fitter performers are able to practice for longer and at a higher level than less fit performers. This increases their skill learning capability. Fit athletes are able to train for long periods at high intensity and therefore will develop skills faster.

injury
Injured athletes need to modify their training program or risk further damage to the injured area

level of competition For individuals who engage in social sport and participate for affiliation motives (desire to play with their mates) it is important to train/coach them accordingly