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1

Examining Historical Sources

-Historical Context: The background (time, place, beliefs, events) behind the creation of the source
-Point of View: The author's opinion about the subject. An author's point of view is often shaped by the author's education, life experiences, or social position.
-Frame of Reference: These are generally-held assumptions at the time that the source was created.

2

Validity of a Source

Historians and social scientists evaluate the validity of a source based on:
-Language of the Source: Is it objective, factual and logical, or emotional and contradictory?
-Corroboration with other Sources: Do other sources confirm the existence of the same facts?
-Information about the Author: Is the author an eye-witness? Does the author have special qualifications? Does the author seem objective or biased?

3

Culture/Civilization

-Culture: A people's way of life--- their foods, clothing, customs and beliefs. Culture is a form of learned behavior that is passed from on generation to the next.
-Civilization: Advanced form of society in which some people live in cities, have complex institutions, use some form of writing, and are skilled in science and technology.

4

Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution occurred in the Middle East 10,000 years ago. People saw they could obtain food by planting seeds.
-Food Surpluses: People began to change from hunters and gatherers to producers of food.
-Domestication of Animals: People learned to domesticate animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle.
-Settlements: People no longer had to wander in search of food and could now establish settlements with permanent homes.

5

River Valley Civilizations

The first civilizations developed along rivers with fertile soil from periodic floods. Here, farmers were able to grow a surplus of food, allowing the rise of civilization.
-Mesopotamia: The region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; invented the sailboat, irrigation, the wheel, calendar, and bronze.
-

6

River Valley Civilizations

The first civilizations developed along rivers with fertile soil from periodic floods. Here, farmers were able to grow a surplus of food, allowing the rise of civilization.
-Mesopotamia: The region between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; invented the sailboat, irrigation, the wheel, calendar, and bronze.
-Egypt: Developed along the Nile River in North Africa; Egyptian society was ruled by a powerful pharaoh; built pyramids.
-India: The Indus River deposited rich soil over the neighboring plain.
-China: China's first civilization emerged in the fertile plains of the Huang He.

7

Judaism

Judaism was the religion of the ancient Hebrews. It began in the ancient lands now known as Israel. Moses led the Jews out of Egyptian slavery.
-Judaism is the first religion to teach monotheism--- the belief in one God.
-Old Testament: History of the Jewish people is told in the first books of the Bible, known as the Old Testament.
-Ten Commandments: Established a moral code of conduct: emphasizes living justly; belief in one God; honoring one's parents, not killing or stealing.

8

Persian Civilization

-Cyrus the Great united the Persian Empire.
-Darius, his son, introduced uniform measures and built several new cities.
-Zoroastrianism: A new religion based on Zoroaster, who taught there were two gods: light and goodness, and darkness and evil.
-Persian Accomplishments:
>>Learned to use coins, moving from a barter system to a money economy
>>Built hundreds of roads to unify empire.
>>Established a postal service.

9

Persian Civilization

-Cyrus the Great united the Persian Empire.
-Darius, his son, introduced uniform measures and built several new cities.
-Zoroastrianism: A new religion based on Zoroaster, who taught there were two gods: light and goodness, and darkness and evil.
-Persian Accomplishments:
>>Learned to use coins, moving from a barter system to a money economy
>>Built hundreds of roads to unify empire.
>>Established a postal service.

10

Greek Civilization

-City-States: Mountains cut off centers of population from each other. This lead to the development of city-states.
-Sparta: A city state that was military in nature. Life was organized around military needs. At an early age, males were taught to be strong soldiers serving the state.
-Athens: Developed world's first democracy, but women, foreigners and slaves were not citizens and could not take part in Athenian government.

11

Golden Age of Greek Culture

During this period, the Greeks enjoyed great prosperity and made significant achievements in art, literature, an philosophy.
-Philosophers: Athenians believed human reason was powerful enough to understand the world and solve problems. Noted Greek philosophers questioned nature and life:
>>Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
-Architecture: Athens created statues and buildings of perfect proportions.
>>Parthenon: Temple to goddess Athena. High point of Greek architecture.

12

Roman Civilization

Rome: built on fertile plain in the middle of Italy
-Roman Republic: A republic has a system of government by elected representatives. Roman society had two main social classes: patricians and plebeians.
-Twelve Tables: Roman code of laws that stated that citizens were "equal under the law" and "innocent until proven guilty."
-Roman Empire: After uniting Italy, Rome defeated Carthage, and spread to Western Europe. Augustus became the first emperor. Christianity gradually spread.

13

Empires of India

-Aryans came to India around 1500 BCE
>>Created city-states in major river valleys.
>>Developed Sanskrit, a form of writing.
>>Introduced Hinduism to India.
>>New social order developed, known as the caste system
-Mauryan Empire
>>Asoka allowed all religions in India.
>>Asoka built roads and hospitals.
-Gupta Empire: They ushered in a "Golden Age of Hindu Culture."
>>Advanced concept of zero, decimal system.
>>Their system of numerals is used today.

14

Empires of India

-Aryans came to India around 1500 BCE
>>Created city-states in major river valleys.
>>Developed Sanskrit, a form of writing.
>>Introduced Hinduism to India.
>>New social order developed, known as the caste system
-Mauryan Empire
>>Asoka allowed all religions in India.
>>Asoka built roads and hospitals.
-Gupta Empire: They ushered in a "Golden Age of Hindu Culture."
>>Advanced concept of zero, decimal system.
>>Their system of numerals is used today.

15

Hinduism

-Hindus believe in many gods and goddesses--- all are forms of one Supreme Being.
-Reincarnation: We're reborn in a new form after we die, based on deeds in this life.

16

Buddhism

-Began in India around 500 BCE
-Siddhartha Gautama: Known as Buddha.
>>Rich prince who set off in search of truth.
-Beliefs: Self-denial and meditation
>>One must give up selfish desires to find true peace and harmony: Eight-Fold Path.
>>Believe in reincarnation.

17

Dynasties of China

China's history is divided into dynasties.
-Zhou Dynasty: Believe their ruler was in power due to the Mandate of Heaven.
-Qin Dynasty:
>>Shi Huang-ti: First emperor of China.
>>Unified China under his rule.
>>Built Great Wall of China.
-Han Dynasty:
>>Kept China unified over next 400 years.
>>Selected officials based on examinations.
>>Established trade along the Silk Road.

18

Confucianism

-Confucius established a philosophy followed in
China for centuries.
-This philosophy stressed kindness, peace, harmony, and following the natural order--- each person's role in society is due to his or her position in the universe.
-In every relationship there is a superior and an inferior.
-A good ruler should govern justly and for the benefit of his subjects.

19

Byzantine Empire

-Emperor Constantine moved the capital from Rome to Constantinople in 330 CE.
-Constantinople was located on the land route between Europe and Asia.
-Lasted almost 1000 years.
-Religion: They developed their own form of Christianity known as Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
-End of Empire: Over time, the Byzantine Empire gradually lost its territories. In1453, the Byzantine Empire was conquered by the Ottoman Turks.

20

People in the Middle Ages

Certain individuals had

21

People in the Middle Ages

Certain individuals had a major impact.
-St. Augustine: Appealed to faith in God.
-Charlemagne was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Aachen in 800 CE, expanded the empire, and revived learning.
-St. Thomas Aquinas argued men could judge government laws against natural law and could overthrow unjust rulers.
-King John signed the Magna Carta in 1215. It guaranteed Englishmen the right to a trail and required consent of the nobles before passing any new taxes.

22

Feudalism

Feudalism arose in Europe out of the chaos after the fall of Rome. It provided security and protection in a period of great turmoil.
-Social System: Society was divided between the king, nobles, knights, and serfs. Lords gave land to vassals in exchange for service.
-Political System: The king ruled with the advice of his leading nobles. The novels served the king with their knights, armed warriors on horses.
-Economic System: (Manorialism) Serfs worked on the land of their lord. Most people lived on a self-sufficient manor.

23

Age of Faith: Catholic Church

-The Catholic Church was the most powerful organization in Western Europe. The Pope was the head of the Church.
>>Christians believed the Church held power to send persons to Heaven or Hell.
>>Church was the main center of learning.
>>Church wealth grew as many nobles who died left their land to the Church in order to gain entry to Heaven.
-Crusades: Christian Europeans challenged Muslims for control of the Holy Land. The Crusades increased interest in trade with the East.

24

Islam

-Rise of Islam: In the 7th century, Islam arose on the Arabian Peninsula.
-Mohammed: Founded Islam. He believed God had selected him as a messenger to preach faith in Allah, the on true God.
-Quran: Holy book of Islam. Contains God's message as spoken to Mohammed.
-Five Pillars of Islam: Faith, prayer, charity, fasting, making a pilgrimage to Mecca.
-Spread of Islam: Within 100 years, the Islamic caliphates controlled the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain.

25

Kingdoms of Africa

Merchants crossed the Sahara to trade salt for gold and other riches.
-Kingdom of Ghana: Prospered by taxing the gold-salt trade.
-Kingdom of Mali: Controlled the gold-salt trade.
>>Mansa Musa visited Cairo and Mecca.
>>Expanded Timbuktu, which became a center of Islamic learning and culture.
-Kingdom of Songhai: Also grew rich from trade across Sahara. Its people were Muslims; expanded trade with Europe and Asia.

26

Kingdoms of Africa

Merchants crossed the Sahara to trade salt for gold and other riches.
-Kingdom of Ghana: Prospered by taxing the gold-salt trade.
-Kingdom of Mali: Controlled the gold-salt trade.
>>Mansa Musa visited Cairo and Mecca.
>>Expanded Timbuktu, which became a center of Islamic learning and culture.
-Kingdom of Songhai: Also grew rich from trade across Sahara. Its people were Muslims; expanded trade with Europe and Asia.

27

Ottoman Empire

-Ottoman Turks, ruled by the Sultan, emerged in the 1200s and captured Constantinople in 1453.
-Their empire was located at the crossroads between Europe and Asia.
-They controlled the Middle East and parts of Easter Europe.
-Ottomans also dominated the Mediterranean until they were defeated by Spain.
-Ottomans allowed Christians and Jews some limited self-government.

28

Muslim and Mughal India

-Muslims began invading Northwest India in later 7th century.
-The Muslims established Sultanates in Northwest India.
-Babur founded the Mughal Empire:
>>Akbar the Great conquered Muslim and Hindu states, uniting India under his control.
>>Shah Jahan built the Taj Mahal.
-Sikhism: A religion based on belief in one God and in the equality of all human beings.

29

Golden Age of China

-Tang Dynasty (618-907)
>>Reunited China and brought peace and prosperity.
>>Reintroduced government examinations.
>>Great advances were made in architecture, sculpture, and painting.
>>Conquered Korea and Manchuria.
-Song Dynasty (960-1279)
>>Introduced compass and paper money.
>>Greatly increased farm production.
>>Population saw an increase in wealth.
>>Introduced the use of gunpowder in war.

30

Mongol empire

Central Asia saw the rise of nomadic peoples who excelled at horsemanship and fighting skills.
-During 1200, the Mongols of Central Asia established the world's largest empire.
-Chinggis Khan united Mongols and attacked China; promoted trade in empire.
-Kublai Khan established the Yuan Dynasty in China. Visited by Marco Polo.
The Ming Dynasty overthrew the Mongols in China and establish 300 years of peace; later Ming emperors were involved in trade with Europe.