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Flashcards in Stage Three Deck (39):

What is stage 3?

Collect and record data appropriate to the geographical question or hypothesis


What needs to be considered when using a questionnaire?

1. Question type
2. Appropriate/ inappropriate questions
3. Order and layout
4. How to conduct a questionnaire
5. Sample size and type
6. Limitations of questionnaires


What is primary data?

New data which has not been previously collected or analysed, e.g. The students fieldwork data


How can primary data be collected through fieldwork?

1. Observation - field sketches, photographs, classification (e.g. Recording land uses), quantifying observations (eg judging pebble roundness)
2. Measurements - using standard instruments, e.g. Ranging poles, quadrats, metre rules, clinometers, flow metres, thermometers, tape measures, compasses, callipers


Advantages of primary data?

1. Exact location is known
2. Sample strategy and number is known, making reliability easier to assess
3. Exact conditions during data collection known so able to assess impact on accuracy
4. Equipment and level of expertise known so accuracy is easier to assess


Disadvantages of primary data?

1. Data is often collected on one day meaning data is affected by conditions on that day.
2. Possible inaccuracy and unreliability due to lack of expertise.


What should a good plan include?

1. Equipment list to show how p data was collected
2. Justification of data collection
3. Include well designed recording sheets


What is secondary data?

Comes from published sources which have been processed or analysed, e.g. Textbooks, articles, published maps, charts and diagrams


Advantages of secondary data?

1. Official data would have been collected using sophisticated instruments and by experienced researchers so should be accurate
2. Data may have been collected for longer so more reliable and used to analyse changes over time
3. Data may have been collected over a wider area so more reliable/ generalisable


Disadvantages of secondary data?

1. Accuracy is not known
2. Exact site of collection may not be known
3. Site where data was collected may be different from where primary data was collected and therefore should not be used for direct comparison
4. Reliability of data collection methods is not known if details of sampling technique is not included in the publication


What are historical photos useful for?

Useful for comparing with up to data photographs in order to analyse change over time


What is census data useful for?

Taken every 10 years and collects data on population, occupation, education level, religion. Data is available at different scales. Boundaries remain the same so changes can be shown


What is geodemographic data?

Developed by ACORN and based on postcodes. Every one of 175m postcodes has been categorised to show socioeconomic info, she health care, crime levels, employment


What are qualitative methods?

1. Participant observation
2. Interviewing
3. Focus groups


What are participant observations?

Most widely used qualitative research method. Involves spending time with communities and observing them. Researcher doesn't achieve data as such rather a set of field notes, diary entries, photos and some simple tallies of observations.


What is interviewing?

Qualitative interviews often take the form of conversations, fairly casual and as a result the interviewee may reveal more info that they would in a formal survey.
Not structures. Researcher must go into the interview with a set of questions they want answers and try to steer the conversation in a way to cover them.


What are focus groups?

Generates in depth discussion between a small group of subjects. The role of the researcher can range from full interaction in the discussion to simply observing and promoting when necessary.
Often used for researching issues where there are conflicting issues


Advantages of observations?

1. Researcher gains trust of those studied so hidden info is revealed.
2. By participating researchers discover everyday info that may be seen initially but turn out to be vital


What are disadvantages of participant observations?

1. Time consuming
2. Ethical considerations
3. May be difficult to gain initial access to a private community


Advantages of interviewing?

1. People orientated and sensitive approach
2. Flexible approach that can be adapted easily according to subject and interviewee


Disadvantages of interviews?

1. Easy for researchers to get led away from the aim of their study
2. Difficult as it requires confidence and social skills


Advantages of focus groups?

1. Useful follow up method, to further issues raised in interviews and observations


Disadvantages of focus groups?

1. Can be difficult to agree
2. Down people in the group may be more forceful and confident with their view so it becomes more prominent


Advantages of 1:50,000 maps

1. Can be used to identify landmarks
2. Can be used to describe rural settlement patterns
3. Can be used for travel directions


Disadvantages of 1:50,000 maps?

1. Less detailed
2. Difficult to assess risks due to lack of detail


Advantages of 1:25,000 maps?

1. Can be used to locate parking areas
2. Can map out terrain
3. Better for assessing potential risks
4. Better for direction as shows internal town structures


Disadvantages of 1:25,000 maps?

1. Can't see whole area
2. Still can't see smaller roads so lacks detail.


Effectiveness of photographs?

1. Notes and annotations describe features and processes (✔️)
2. Suggestive of time of day/year (✔️)
3. Shows distribution of materials in an area (✔️)
4. Shows relationship between physical and human features (✔️)
5. Can just be a snapshot of specific conditions (✖️)
6. Using multiple photos taken over time can show what processes are occurring (✖️)


What needs to be shown in a field sketch?



What is GIS?

Geographical Information Systems
- a system for storing and manipulating geographical info on a computer


What does GIS do?

- has an imprint application in aiding spatial research and investigations. Uses computers to store, analyse and present data in maps spatially.
- data can be located to exact location on earth surface
- presents data in a set of layers so the researcher can combine different sets of spatial data on one map
- allows comparisons of data sets to see if there is a relationship between two variables


Examples of GIS?

- Free to download = google earth
- Low annual fee = memory map
- High Cost = Aegis, Arcmapper require network licences (£500/year) and training to be able to use them


GIS uses examples?

- mapping population density over a physical geography map of areas of flood risk
- comparing urban land use with land prices or physical geography
- mapping pollution levels over two locations of possible pollution sources


How can GIS be used?

1. Data collection
2. Data presentation
3. Analysing and interpretations data


How is GIS used in data collection?

- can be used to measure distances or area accurately and using GPS technology to reduce potential for human error by locating exact data collection area
- data can be logged at exact time it was collected
- assessing secondary data
- aid with developing a risk assessment


How is GIS used to data presentation?

- data can be displayed in computer generated maps at the precise location therefore increasing accuracy of data presentation
- maps can be edited with colours and symbols to make powerful visual images of data
- different data sets can be combined
- data can be presented in 3D the highlight any specific trends or patterns


How is GIS used in analysing and interpretations data?

- GIS increased ability to quickly compare spatial data sets
- maps are extremely accurate and therefor allow exact measurements of distance and areas. Increase accuracy of measurements
- GIS maps allow researchers to zoom in and out


Advantages of using GIS?

1. Can cover large scales, e.g. Global patterns
2. Can cope with large amounts of data and a variety of different data types
3. Accurately locates data on the exact place on earth
4. Fast and efficient
5. Can cope with edits and changes to data


Disadvantages of using GIS?

1. Need for training which take time and is expensive
2. High cost to use some software
3. Potential for software failures or limited scope
4. Human error in using more complex packages
5. The usefulness is only as good as the skill of the researcher so may have limited use if researcher using it had limited experience