Flashcards in Steinberg Chapter 1 Deck (168):
What is puberty?
Puberty is a flood of biological events leading to an adult size body and sexual maturity, thus enabling young people to fulfill their biological destiny specifically sexual reproduction and survival of the species. The period during which an individual becomes capable of sexual reproduction. It also more broadly encompasses all the physical changes that occur in adolescents as they pass from childhood into adulthood (Dorn & Biro, 2011).
If no new hormones are produced at puberty then what’s changing hormonally?
The levels of some hormones (that have been present since before birth) increase, whereas others decrease.
Describe the disproportionate production of different types of gender-related hormones during adolescence?
During adolescence the average male produces more androgens compared to estrogens. The opposite is true of females who produce more estrogens compared to androgens (Susman & Dorn, 2009).
Males: androgens > estrogens
Females: estrogens > androgens
What is the name of the mechanism responsible for maintaining certain levels of androgens and estrogens?
When these hormonal levels fall below the HPG axis set points, what is responsible for disinhibiting the pituitary?
This disinhibition permits the pituitary to stimulate the release of sex hormones by the gonads, and other puberty-related hormones by the adrenal gland. When hormone levels reach the set point, the hypothalamus responds by inhibiting its stimulation of the pituitary gland. Your brain is constantly monitoring a variety of signals and adjusting your hormonal set points in response.
What are the 3 chief physical manifestations of puberty? (PSR)
1.Development of primary sex characteristics (gonads, hormonal changes) ultimately enabling reproduction
2. Development of secondary sex characteristics (genitals, breasts, pubic, facial, and body hair)
3. Rapid acceleration of growth, specifically height and weight.
Puberty is the result of the development of what 2 systems?
Central nervous system (Clint)
Endocrine system (Eastwood)
When does puberty begin?
Puberty may appear to come on suddenly, judging from its external signs, but in fact it is part of a gradual process that begins at conception.
What is the function of the endocrine system during puberty?
It produces, circulates, and regulates levels of hormones
What are hormones?
Highly specialized substances secreted by one or more endocrine glands and then enter the bloodstream and travel throughout the body.
What are glands?
Organs that stimulate particular parts of the body to respond in specific ways to particular hormones.
What are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons?
Specialized neurons that are activated by certain pubertal hormones.
Where does the endocrine system receive its instructions from to increase or decrease circulating levels of particular hormones?
The central nervous system
In what way is the endocrine system like a thermostat?
Hormonal levels are “set” at a certain point, which may differ depending on the stage of development. When a particular hormonal level in your body dips below the endocrine system’s set point for that hormone, secretion of the hormone increases; when the level reaches the set point, secretion temporarily stops. Hormone can be adjusted up or down, depending on environmental or internal bodily conditions.
At the onset of puberty, a feedback loop ensues. What are the 3 components of this feedback loop?
What are gonads?
Glands that release sex hormones: in males, the testes; in females, the ovaries.
What is the pituitary gland?
Responsible for regulating levels of hormones in the body.
What is the hypothalamus?
Part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland, and where there is a concentration of GnRH neurons. When the hypothalamus malfunctions puberty is delayed. Seeing a reproductive endocrinologist is recommended.
It is inaccurate to say that adolescence is an inherently stressful time. But what is true about stress during adolescence?
Adolescents experience a heightened vulnerability to stress.
What is one reason adolescence is a period of great vulnerability for the onset of many serious mental disorders?
The hormonal changes of puberty make adolescents more responsive to stress (Monahan, Guyer, Silk, Fitzwater, & Steinberg, 2016; Romeo, 2013; Stroud et al., 2009; Trépanier et al., 2013; Worthman, 2011). This leads to excessive secretion of the stress hormone cortisol, a substance that at high and chronic levels can cause brain cells to die (Carrion & Wong, 2012; Gunnar, Wewerka, Frenn, Long, & Griggs, 2009).
Hormonal changes during puberty—> more responsive to stress—> excessive secretion of cortisol —> chronic levels of cortisol = possible brain damages
What is adrenarche?
The maturation of the adrenal gland. More specifically, the adrenal gland releases a slightly higher level of sex hormones between 6 and 8. By the age of 10 levels of those sex hormones (adrenal androgens) have increased 10 fold, evidenced by most people report having their first sexual attraction at the magical age of 10 before they went through puberty. (From Berk and Steinberg Texts)
What triggers puberty?
a) the HPG axis reawakens (the first awakening occurs prenatally) signaling to the body it’s ready for puberty.
b) a “puberty alarm” is set very early in life by information coded in the genes. In other words, the age at which someone goes through puberty is largely inherited. Genetics determine the upper and lower age limits (as opposed to a fixed absolute age).
c) an increase in the brain chemical kisspeptin. Leptin stimulates its production and melatonin suppresses it.
d) Quantity of fat cells (leptin) (obese children will go through puberty on the early side of their inherited propensity)
e) levels of melatonin. Low levels means kisspeptin is NOT being suppressed.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS (some of the reawakening of the HPG axis at puberty is due to multiple environmental signals)
a) availability of sexually mature mating partners in the environment
b) sufficiency of nutritional resources to support a pregnancy
c) physically maturity and sufficient health to begin reproducing
d) frequency of exposure to light (children who live close to the equator
are more likely to go through puberty on the early side of their inherited propensity)
e. the environment determines the timing and rate within the upper and lower age limits that were genetically predetermined.
By far the 3 most important environmental influences on pubertal maturation are what?
What 5 factors predict pubertal timing from an environment perspective?
The overall physical well-being of the individual from conception through preadolescence
3) history of protein and/or caloric deficiency
4) Chronic illness
5) Excessive exercise
How do researchers know that the timing and tempo of pubertal timing is largely inherited, involving both genetic and chromosomal components?
Researchers compare identical twins and individuals who are not genetically identical. Also, a specific region on chromosome 6 has been identified as one of the markers for pubertal timing in both boys and girls (Bogin, 2011)
Why do obese children tend to start puberty early?
Obese children have more body fat and therefore produce a lot more leptin, which stimulates kisspeptin production
Why do children who live closer to the equator tend to start puberty early?
Children who live near the equator are exposed to relatively more sunlight each year, and they have lower melatonin levels as a result, so their kisspeptin production is not suppressed as much as it is among children who live closer to the poles. Exposure to artificial light, especially the kind of light emitted from electronic gadgets, can also suppress melatonin levels and hasten puberty (Greenspan & Deardorff, 2014).
Are changes in behavior at puberty the result of changes in hormones at that time?
Yes and No
1) increased levels of hormones during puberty affect behavior during puberty.
2) prenatal hormones set in
motion long before puberty affect behavior during puberty.
3) the interaction between increased hormone levels and prenatal hormones affect behavior during puberty.
Long before adolescence—in fact, before birth—hormones organize the brain in ways that may not be manifested in behavior until childhood or even adolescence (Sisk & Foster, 2004). This sex difference in prenatal brain organization predetermines certain patterns of behavior, many of which may not actually appear until much later (Collaer & Hines, 1995). Sex differences in aggression, for example, likely result from the impact of prenatal hormones, rather than from hormonal changes at puberty. In sum, exposure to certain hormones before birth may set a sort of alarm clock that does not go off until adolescence.
How do increases in hormonal levels during puberty affect brain development?
It likely increases adolescents’ emotional arousal and desire for highly rewarding, exciting activities, which may make some teenagers more prone to emotional and behavioral problems (Castellanos-Ryan, Parent, Vitaro, Tremblay, & Séguin, 2013; Forbes & Dahl, 2010; LeMoult, Colich, Sherdell, Hamilton, & Gotlib, 2015; Op de Macks et al., 2011; Speilberg et al., 2015.)
What 3 hormones are simultaneous released that stimulates rapid acceleration in height and weight? (TAG)
Define adolescent growth spurt? During the AGS,
what is it call when adolescents are growing most rapidly?
The rapid acceleration of growth, particularly height and weight.
peak height velocity
During peak height velocity, how many inches in one year does a boy and girl grow?
During this time how much weight can a boy and girl gain in a single year?
Approximately how many inches do boys and girls grow over the course of adolescence?
Approximately how many pounds do boys and girls gain over the course of adolescence?
Boy: 26 lbs
10 to 11 inches in height
50 to 75 pounds
What is one marker signifying the conclusion of puberty?
epiphysis or the closing of the ends of the long bones in the body, which terminates growth in height.
Puberty is a time of significant increase in weight. What percent of one’s adult body weight is gained during adolescence (Susman & Dorn, 2009.)
What is the sequence in body growth that might make adolescents look awkward or gawky?
Extremities—the head, hands, and feet—are the first to accelerate in growth. Accelerated growth occurs next in the arms and legs, followed by torso and shoulder growth.
Before puberty, there are relatively few sex differences in what 2 physical features?
By the end of adolescence what is the muscle-to-fat ratio of boys and girls?
We know that puberty contributes to sex differences in physical performance. But what is not commonly known is that environmental factors play a key role too. Describe 3 environmental factors that contribute to sex differences in physical performance?
1) Strong social pressures on girls to curtail “masculine” activities including some forms of exercise
2) girls are more likely than boys to markedly reduce their physical activity in preadolescence
3) adolescent girls’ diets, especially those of Black girls, are generally less adequate nutritionally than the diets of boys, particularly in important minerals like iron (Johnson, Johnson, Wang, Smiciklas-Wright, & Guthrie, 1994.)
What is the relationship between puberty and dieting among adolescent girls?
Puberty leads to unexpected weight gain misattributed to other factors. This natural weight gain prompts girls to start dieting unnecessarily even when their weight falls in the normal range for their height.
Among adolescent girls, who is the most susceptible to feelings of dissatisfaction with their bodies?
Girls who mature early and begin dating early (Smolak et al., 1993).
What factors tend to make girls more vulnerable to feelings of body dissatisfaction?
1) High frequency of conversation with friends about body image.
2) Girls who are teased about their weight
3) Girls who are pressured to be thin a
4) Comparing themselves with their friends
5) Frequency of exposure to media portrayals of thinness
Webb & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2014).
Ferguson, Muñoz, Garza, & Galdino, 2014
What 2 factors characterize body satisfaction among boys?
Degree of muscularity
Less affected by comparisons with peers
What are the ethnic and cross-cultural differences in body satisfaction among adolescent girls?
1) In many parts of the world, including North and South America, Europe, and Asia, there is strong pressure on girls to be thin (Jones & Smolak, 2011).
2) Black adolescents seem less vulnerable to these feelings of body dissatisfaction (Ali, Rizzo, & Heiland, 2013; Jung & Forbes, 2013; Nishina, Ammon, Bellmore, & Graham, 2006), and consequently they are less likely to diet. Why? Because of the ethnic differences in what constitutes the ideal body type (Granberg, Simons, & Simons, 2009)
What is the sequence of physical changes at puberty for males? (7 sequential stages) (TSP, BP, CFO)
1) testes and scrotal sac
2) pubic hair
3) body growth
5) change in voice
6) facial hair
7) Oil- and sweat-producing glands, acne
What happens at puberty for boys related to abnormal levels of estrogens that might cause embarrassment and body dissatisfaction?
During puberty, there are slight changes in the male breast to the embarrassment of many boys. This development is largely influenced by abnormal levels of estrogens.
For boys, what comes first fertility or an adult-like appearance.
For girls, what comes first fertility or an adult-like appearance.
boys are generally fertile before they have developed an adult-like appearance (Bogin, 2011); the opposite is true for girls.
What is the sequence of physical changes at puberty for females? (6 sequential stages) (BP BM UO)(Bill Pullman had a Bowel Movement at the University of Oregon)
1) Growth of breasts
2) Growth of pubic hair
3) Body growth
5) Underarm hair
6) Oil- and sweat-producing glands
What is menarche?
The beginning of menstruation and is a relatively late development.
When does menarche occur in comparison to ovulation and full reproductive functioning? (MOF) (Made Of Feel)(as opposed to made of steel)
Second: 2 years later ovulation occurs
Third: full reproductive function does not occur until several years after menarche.
Unlike boys, therefore, girls generally appear physically mature before they are fertile.
1) The onset of puberty can occur as early as what age in girls?
2) The onset of puberty can occur as early as what age in boys?
3) The onset of puberty can occur as late as what age in girls?
4) The onset of puberty can occur as late as what age in boys?
5) In girls, the interval between the first sign of puberty and complete physical maturation can be as short as how many months?
6) In girls, the interval between the first sign of puberty and complete physical maturation can be as long as how many years?
7) In boys, the interval between the first sign of puberty and complete physical maturation can be as short as how many years?
8) In boys, the interval between the first sign of puberty and complete physical maturation can be as long as how many years?
By what age will an early-maturing, fast-maturing youngster complete pubertal maturation?
By what age will an
late-maturing, slow-maturing youngster complete pubertal maturation?
This range reveals developmental diversity!
Is there a relation between the age at which puberty BEGINS and the rate at which pubertal development PROCEEDS?
No relation between timing and tempo
Does the timing of puberty strong correlate with the height and weight of adulthood? If not, then what factor is strongly correlated with the height and weight of adulthood?
No! The correlate in this case is the height and weight during childhood.
Among Black girls, Mexican American girls, and White girls who typically begins puberty first, second, and third?
(This finding is NOT attributable solely to SES. Rather, to environmental factors such as being more frequently exposed to chemicals in the environment that stimulate earlier puberty, such as those contained in certain hair care products and cosmetics)
Every individual inherits a what to develop at a certain rate and to begin pubertal maturation at a certain time? But this predisposition is not a what age but rather an upper and lower age limit? Genetics determine the upper and lower age limits and the environment determines the timing and rate within those limits.
What 5 family-oriented factors contribute to puberty occurring somewhat earlier among girls?
1) Growing up in a father-absent family*
2) Growing up in a less cohesive family
3) Growing up in a conflict-ridden household
4) Growing up with a stepfather
5) Sexual abuse
One explanation for the finding that family conflict may accelerate pubertal maturation is that tension in the family may induce stress, which, in turn, may affect hormonal secretions in the adolescent, especially among girls who are genetically susceptible to this influence.
* the presence of a stepfather may expose the adolescent girl to pheromones that stimulate pubertal maturation. In general, among humans and other mammals, living in proximity to one’s close biological relatives appears to slow the process of pubertal maturation, whereas exposure to unrelated members of the other sex may accelerate it.
What is one of the best examples of how our social relationships can affect our biological functioning.
Women who live together—such as dormitory roommates—find that their menstrual periods begin to synchronize over time.
What role do genetic factors play in determining group differences in pubertal maturation?
(Researchers typically study group differences in puberty by comparing average ages of menarche in different regions.)
Genetic factors play an extremely small role in determining group differences in pubertal maturation (Eveleth & Tanner, 1990). Differences among countries in the average rate and timing of puberty are more likely to reflect differences in their environments than differences in their populations’ gene pools (Bogin, 2011).
Are there regional differences in the timing of puberty?
Menarche generally is earlier in countries where individuals are less likely to be malnourished or to suffer from chronic disease (Bogin, 2011). For example, in western Europe and in the United States, the median age of menarche ranges from about 12 to 13½ years. In Africa, however, the median age ranges from about 14 to 17 years
Researchers study environmental effects on pubertal timing in what 3 ways?
1) Looking at individual differences
2) looking at group differences
3) looking at secular trends or changes over time.
What 6 factors potentially explain the secular trends in pubertal timing over the past 2 centuries?
1) improved nutrition
2) better sanitation
3) better control of infectious diseases
4) increased rates of obesity, which affects leptin levels.
5) exposure to certain man-made chemicals in cosmetics, food, and the environment that affect development by mimicking actual pubertal hormones
6) increased exposure to artificial light, which affects melatonin secretion
What evidence indicates that the secular trend is valid? In most European countries, maturation has arrived earlier by about how many months per decade? For example, in Norway 150 years ago, the average age of menarche may have been about how many years? Today in Norway, menarche begins at approximately what ages? Similar declines have been observed over the same period in other industrialized nations and, more recently, in developing countries as well (Ma et al., 2009)
3 to 4
12 and 13
Why are children spending more time in the midst of puberty than ever before?
There is some evidence suggesting it is beginning earlier and taking longer to complete. In short, onset is earlier and duration is longer.
Why is the secular trend concerning for the positive development of adolescents?
As the age of puberty has dropped, the amount of time elapsed between the arousal of sensation seeking (puberty induces higher inclinations for sensation seeking) and the maturation of self control has grown, creating a larger window of vulnerability to risky behavior (your new car arrives on Monday but the breaks and all the safety features don’t arrive until Friday...good luck!) Consistent with this, as the age of puberty has fallen, rates of adolescent mortality have risen.
How does puberty affect behavior directly and indirectly?
1) puberty increases levels of testosterone which are directly linked to an increase in sex drive and sexual activity among adolescent boys.
1) puberty may change the adolescent’s self-image, which, in turn, may affect how he or she behaves. For example, a boy who has recently gone through puberty may feel more grown up as a result of his more adultlike appearance. This, in turn, may make him seek more independence from his parents. He may ask for a later curfew, a larger allowance, or the right to make decisions about things that previously were decided by his parents.
2) puberty specifically the physical changes of puberty often spark conflict between teenagers and their parents, in part because of the ways in which puberty affects the adolescent’s desire for autonomy.
3) puberty transforms the adolescent’s appearance, which, in turn, may elicit changes in how others react to the teenager. These changes in reactions may provoke changes in the adolescent’s behavior. An adolescent girl who has recently matured physically may find herself suddenly receiving the attention of older boys who had not previously paid her much heed. She may feel nervous about all the extra attention and confused about how she should respond to it. Moreover, she must now make decisions about how much time she wishes to devote to dating and how she should behave when out with someone who is sexually interested in her.
The impact of puberty on adolescents’ psychological functioning is to a great extent shaped by what?
social context in which puberty takes place.
How does puberty affect self esteem? It depends!
It varies by gender and ethnic group, with girls more adversely affected than boys and White girls at greatest risk for developing a poor body image.
Given the premium placed on thinness in contemporary American society , the increase in body dissatisfaction among White girls that takes place at puberty is, not surprisingly, linked to specific concerns that girls have about what 4 features of their bodies?
hips, thighs, waist, and weight
Self-esteem or self-image is reasonably what over time, with long and sturdy roots reaching back to childhood
One classic study, when adolescents’ moods were monitored repeatedly by electronic pagers, for example, how did their moods compare to the moods of adults?
Researchers found that their moods fluctuated during the course of the day more than the moods of adults.
What is the relation between the hormonal changes of puberty and mood among adolescents?
According to several comprehensive reviews of research on hormones and adolescent mood and behavior, the direct connection between hormones and mood is not very strong. When studies do find a connection between hormonal changes at puberty and adolescent mood or behavior, the effects are strongest early in puberty, when the process is being “turned on” and when hormonal levels are highly variable.
Rapid increases in many of the hormones associated with puberty—such as testosterone, estrogen, and various adrenal androgens—tend to be associated with increased levels of what gender-specific behaviors? One interpretation of these findings is that it is not so much the absolute increases in these hormones during puberty but their rapid fluctuation early in puberty that may affect adolescents’ moods. Once the hormone levels stabilize at higher levels, later in puberty, their negative effects wane.
Boys: irritability, impulsivity, aggression
Although rapid increases in hormones early in puberty are associated with depressed mood in girls, what plays a far greater role in the development of depression than do hormonal changes?
Similarly, while high levels of testosterone have been associated with impulsivity and aggression and low levels with depression, these associations are weaker among adolescents who have what?
In other words, there is there little evidence that adolescents’ moodiness results exclusively from the storm and stress of raging hormones. Over the course of a day, a teenager may shift from elation to boredom, back to happiness, and then to anger. But these shifts in mood appear to have more to do with shifts in activities—elated when seeing a girlfriend, bored in social studies class, happy when having lunch with friends, and angry when assigned extra work at the fast-food restaurant—than with internal, biological changes.
stressful life events ( , such as problems in the family, in school, or with friends)
positive family relationships
How does puberty change sleep patterns?
1) Its a combination of biological and environmental factors
2) Biological factors: melatonin secretions start about 2 hours later among adolescents who have completed puberty than among those who have not yet begun. Interestingly, when allowed to regulate their own sleep schedules (as on weekends), most teenagers will stay up until around 1:00 a.m. and sleep until about 10:00 a.m.
2) Environmental factors: overstimulation at bedtime, specifically social stimulation and technological stimulation, suggesting that the late-night hours kept by many adolescents are voluntary, but made easier by the changes in the sleep centers of the brain.
3) Environmental factors: the demands of school and extracurricular activities are taking their toll on adolescents’ sleep by keeping them busy into the late hours.
What is ironic about school start times and new sleepiness/wakefulness patterns during adolescence?
Adolescents are least alert between the hours of 8:00 and 9:00 a.m. (when most schools start) and most alert after 3.00 p.m., when the school day is over.
In the early 1990s, what percent of American 15-year-olds reported getting adequate sleep most nights? Has that percent changed today? (2015)
Less than 25%
Sleep researchers estimate that, because of early school start times, adolescents get how many hours less sleep per night when the school year begins than they did during the preceding summer months (Hansen, Janssen, Schiff, Zee, & Dubocovich, 2005). This has prompted many experts to call for communities to delay their school starting times.
If delays in secretions of melatonin account for approximately half of the reason why adolescents are getting to bed later than they were 30 years ago, what environmental factors explain the other half?
The availability of television, the Internet, and other electronic media during late-night and early-morning hours has increased. This suggests that the late-night hours kept by many adolescents are voluntary, but made easier by the changes in the sleep centers of the brain (natureXnurture)
How does exposure to light affect the secretion of melatonin?
exposure to light depresses melatonin secretion, so that staying up late with the lights on or staring at computer, smartphone, tablet, or TV screens will delay the rise in melatonin even more, thus perpetuating the sleep deprivation epidemic in the U.S. among adolescents.
What are some of the negative consequences of inadequate sleep?
poor school performance
About 10% of teenagers report chronic insomnia, which increases the risk of other psychological problems as well as sleep difficulties in adulthood.
The good news is that getting just one additional hour of sleep each night has been shown to significantly improve adolescents’ well-being.
Is binge-sleeping on the weekends an effective tool to combat sleep deprivation during the week?
Having markedly different bedtimes on weekends versus weekdays actually contributes to further sleep-related problems. The best thing teenagers can do to avoid problems waking up on school days is to force themselves to get up at the same time on the weekend as on school days, regardless of how late they have stayed up.
How does puberty affect family relationships?
1) It increases conflict (especially with mothers)
a) family conflict is beneficial from an evolutionary perspective in that it maximizes the improbability of incest.
2) It increases distance (physical and emotional)
(these two effects are not true in ethnic minority families)
The parent-child distancing effect is most likely the result of what 3 broad changes?
Hormonal changes (more testy)
Physical changes (not daddy’s little girl anymore)
Psychological changes (cognitive autonomy or newfound interest in dating)
How does pubertal maturation affect peer relationships?
1) Boys and girls who are physically mature are more likely than their less mature peers to be involved in romantic activities such as having a boyfriend or girlfriend or going out on dates, although this depends on the social norm of the peer group.
2) Early physical maturity increases the likelihood of extracurricular involvement, which exposes adolescents to new peer groups.
How do adolescent girls typically respond to pubertal changes, specifically:
1) breast development
1) the majority of girls greeted this change positively
2) Adolescent girls’ attitudes toward menarche are less negative today than they appear to have been in the past (J. Lee, 2008), a change that may be attributable to the increase in information about menstruation provided in schools and in the media (Merskin, 1999). Among today’s adolescent girls, menarche is typically accompanied by gains in social maturity, peer prestige, and self-esteem—as well as by increased self-consciousness (Brooks-Gunn & Reiter, 1990). Nevertheless, many young women have developed a negative image of menstruation before reaching adolescence, and they enter puberty with a mixture of excitement and fear (S. Moore, 1995). Girls whose mothers are helpful and matter-of-fact in their response to menarche report the most positive memories of the experience. In general, how positive or negative mensuration is for girls depends on their attitudes about and expectations for and preparations for the event.
How do adolescent boys typically respond to pubertal changes, specifically their first ejaculation?
Their first ejaculation does not appear to cause undue anxiety, embarrassment, or fear. Boys, at least in the United States, do not discuss their first ejaculation with either parents or friends (Not true of girls and their first period). Cultural differences in boys’ responses to their first ejaculation are likely related to differences in how cultures view masturbation.
What are the negative developmental outcomes for early-maturing boys?
1) While they are in the midst of puberty, early maturers experience more frequent and more intense temper tantrums
2) elevated rates of depression and anxiety among early-maturing boys relative to their on-time peers and among boys who go through puberty especially rapidly.
3) The impact of victimization is greater for early maturers, perhaps because being picked on when one is larger than average is all the more embarrassing.
4) More likely than their peers to get involved in antisocial or deviant activities, including truancy, minor delinquency, and problems at school
5) More likely to use drugs and alcohol and engage in other risky activities
What are the positive developmental outcomes for early-maturing boys?
1) early-maturing boys feel better about themselves
2) more popular than their late-maturing peers
3) higher levels of self-esteem and admiration from peers during early adolescence.
What are the developmental outcomes for late-maturing boys?
1) initially less popular
2) significantly higher ratings on measures of intellectual curiosity, exploratory behavior, and social initiative.
What are the negative consequences of early pubertal maturation among girls?
More emotional difficulties, specifically:
a. poorer self-image
b. higher rates of depression
c. Psychological distress
d. more likely to have experienced a serious mental disorder at some point in adolescence or young adulthood
f. eating disorders
g. panic attacks
h. higher emotional arousal
i. they are often the victims of rumors and gossip which can lead to social anxieties
j. early pressure to date and, perhaps, to be involved in a sexual relationship may take its toll on girls’ mental health
k. more vulnerable to emotional distress (especially when they have relatively more friendships with boys and when they are in schools with older peers)
These difficulties seem to have less to do with the direct effects of hormones and more to do with the ways in which looking different from their peers affects girls’ feelings about their appearance and social relationships with other adolescents. For example, the impact of early maturation is worse on girls who are heavier than on their thinner peers.
l. delinquency (depends on school composition)
n. drug use
o. school problems (late-maturing girls were twice as likely as early-maturing girls to continue beyond the compulsory minimum number of years of high school)
p. engage in early sexual intercourse
Explanation for l-p?
These problems appear to arise because they are more likely to spend time unsupervised, hanging out with older adolescents, especially older adolescent boys, who initiate them into activities that might otherwise be delayed.
The degree and type of negative consequence related to early pubertal maturation depends on what factors?
1) The broader context in which maturation takes place. For example, early maturing American girls generally have lower self-esteem and a poorer self-image because of our cultural preference for thinness and our ambivalence about adolescent sexuality.
2) There are more adverse mental health consequences seen among White girls than their Black or Hispanic peers, presumably because puberty is more likely to lead to body dissatisfaction among White girls.
3) Girls who are prone to ruminate or cope poorly when they have problems seem especially vulnerable to the stress of maturing early.
4) Context matters! For example, the adverse consequences of early puberty were limited to adolescents who came from high-risk households, consistent with the idea that puberty itself isn’t inherently stressful but can intensify the effects of other stressors
How does early pubertal maturation among girls affect their popularity?
They are often more popular than other girls, especially, as you would expect, when the index of popularity includes popularity with boys. But this can come at a cost namely they are often the victims of rumors and gossip.
Explain the “maturational deviance” hypothesis about why early maturation is harder on girls than boys?
youngsters who stand far apart from their peers—in physical appearance, for instance—may experience more psychological distress than adolescents who blend in more easily. Because girls on average mature earlier than boys, early-maturing girls mature earlier than both their male and female peers. This makes them really stand out at a time when they would rather fit in and, as a result, may make them more vulnerable to emotional distress. This explanation would also account for the lower self-esteem of late-maturing boys, who deviate toward the other extreme.
Explain the “developmental readiness” hypothesis about why early maturation is harder on girls than boys?
If puberty is a challenge that requires psychological adaptation by the adolescent, perhaps younger adolescents are less ready to cope with the challenge than older ones. Because puberty occurs quite early among early-maturing girls, it may tax their psychological resources. Early maturation among boys, because it occurs at a later age, would pose less of a problem. This also helps to explain why late-maturing boys seem better able than early maturers to control their temper and their impulses when they are going through puberty: They are relatively older and psychologically more mature. If the developmental readiness hypothesis is true, both girls and boys should experience more difficulty if they are early maturers than if they are on time or late, but the difficulty should be temporary. This appears to be the case among boys (for whom the negative effects of early puberty occur during puberty itself, but then fade), but not for girls (for whom the negative effects of early puberty persist).
Explain the “cultural desirability of different body types” hypothesis about why early maturation is harder on girls than boys?
Early maturation for girls means leaving behind the culturally admired state of thinness. Many girls are distressed when they mature because they gain weight. Early maturers experience this weight gain at a time when most of their peers are still girlishly thin. One interesting study showed that in ballet companies—where thinness is even more important than in the culture at large—late maturers, who can retain the “ideal” shape much longer than earlier maturers, have fewer psychological problems than even on-time girls (Brooks-Gunn & Warren, 1985). In contrast, at puberty, boys move from a culturally undesirable state for males (short and scrawny) to a culturally admired one (tall and muscular). Early maturers enjoy the advantage of being tall and muscular before their peers—a special benefit in a society that values males’ athletic prowess—and therefore are more likely to react well to puberty. The fact that the effects of early maturation on girls’ self-esteem vary across cultures suggests that contextual factors need to be taken into account in explaining this pattern of sex differences
What do parents and school personnel need to remember about the effects of early pubertal maturation among girls?
early-maturing girls will be at heightened risk for psychological problems as long as our culture overvalues thinness and encourages the view that females should be judged on the basis of their physical appearance rather than their abilities, values, or personality, the risks of early puberty will probably endure
Current research indicates that obesity is a result of the interplay of what 2 factors?
genetic and environmental factors
What 2 genetic factors might explain the development of and risk for obesity?
Recent neuroimaging studies find that individuals at risk for obesity show relatively greater:
1) activation of the brain’s reward centers in general. For example, heightened responses to images of food
2) poorer impulse control
Obesity is especially prevalent among what 4 populations?
1) Black adolescents
2) Latino adolescents
3) Native American adolescents
4) poor adolescents
Among Latino youth, what increasingly goes up with each successive generation born in the United States?
Which groups of adolescents tend to experience the most adverse psychological consequences related to obesity? (In descending order) (keep in mind that some studies have found no such adverse effects)
White adolescents(especially girls)
Hispanic adolescents (especially girls)
Black adolescents (least likely)
What percent of obese adolescents will be obese adults?
Obesity during adolescence places the individual at much higher risk for what 4 health problems?
1) hypertension (high blood pressure)
2) high cholesterol levels
4) premature death
What is the good news for adolescents who are obese but who do not remain obese as adults?
The long-term health consequences of adolescent obesity disappear!
What are the benefits of increasing one’s physical activity in adolescence?
1) improved academic performance
2) diminished risk for depression
How is obesity, at risk for obesity, and overweight measured during adolescents?
Individuals are considered obese if their BMI is at or above the 95th percentile for people of the same age and gender, at great risk for obesity if their BMI is at or above the 90th percentile, and overweight if their BMI is at or above the 85th percentile (Zametkin, Zoon, Klein, & Munson, 2004).
What percentage of adolescents in the U.S. are obese? (Ogden, Carroll, & Flegal, 2008)
What percentage of adolescents in the U.S. are at great risk for obesity? (a rate that increased substantially between 1970 and 2000 but has since leveled off (Spruijt-Metz, 2011).
Compared to their peers in the mid-1960s, the average 15-year-old boy and girl today are how many pounds heavier? (increases that are far greater than could possibly be due to changes in height)
What is now considered the single most serious public health problem afflicting American teenagers?
In light of the fact that obesity is now considered the single most serious public health problem afflicting American teenagers, there is some evidence that the situation may be getting better; since 2001, rates of WHAT among adolescents have increased whereas consumption of WHAT has declined?
sweets and sugary soft drinks
(Iannotti & Wang, 2013)
By some estimates, the adolescent obesity epidemic will cost the United States more than HOW MUCH as a result of obese individuals’ lost productivity and direct medical costs in adulthood?
(Lightwood, BibbinsDomingo, Coxson, Wang et al., 2009).
The increase in adolescent obesity has been especially dramatic among WHO?
(H. Lee, Lee, Guo, & Harris, 2011)
What are the environmental factors related to obesity?
1) Adolescents are eating too much high-calorie, low-fiber food.
2) Adolescents are drinking far too many sugary soft drinks and consuming too much junk food.
3) Low physical activity
4) Adolescents are spending excessive amounts of time with television, video games, and electronic media.
5) There is a pronounced increase in sedentary behavior between childhood and adolescence
In short, a combination of poor nutrition, insufficient exercise, and inadequate sleep is a recipe for obesity.
6) obese teenagers are relatively more likely to have obese friends, which may reinforce bad behavioral habits.
7) exposure to adversity early in life is associated with obesity in adolescence, perhaps because stress exposure can undermine the subsequent development of self control.
8) attending a high school where a large proportion of juniors and seniors were obese significantly increased the likelihood that the freshmen and sophomores would be obese, too.
What are best practices related to preventing and treating obesity?
1) Address the availability of unhealthy foods and beverages in and near American schools.
2) Food manufacturers and advertisers must be committed to providing and skillfully selling healthy options.
3) Obesity is less likely to develop among a cents who have good relationships with their parents, probably because they are more likely to share family meals where healthy food is served.
4) the availability of parks and recreational facilities is linked to lower rates of obesity
5) parental encouragement of and active participation in exercise.
6) In short, preventing obesity will require multifaceted efforts involving parents, the mass media, food and beverage manufacturers, restaurants, schools, and communities
7) behavioral therapy designed to gradually alter patterns of diet and exercise and medications designed to promote weight loss. The combination of behavior modification and weight loss medication is more effective than either component by itself
8) Adolescents can be taught to successfully regulate their cravings for food.
9) Radical approaches to weight control—fad diets and the like—actually increase, rather than decrease, obesity.
What percent of American adolescents are highly satisfied with their body?
How do many adolescents respond to normal bodily changes at puberty?
More than what percent of all adolescent girls consider themselves overweight and have attempted to diet?
Related to body dissatisfaction, one study found that what percent of female college undergraduates were so concerned about eating that they were embarrassed at buying a chocolate bar in public?
Disordered eating is measured on a continuum, what are the 3 points on this continuum?
1) Sensible and healthy dieting
2) disordered eating that is unhealthy but not at a level requiring treatment
3) full-blown clinical disorders
Disordered eating is associated with a range of stress-related psychological problems, including 5 specific ones. What are they?
1) poor body image
3) alcohol use
5) poor interpersonal relationships
Note: the direction of causality is unclear.
Studies of magazines aimed at women and adolescent girls reveal clear and consistent messages implying what?
How have images presented in these magazines’ advertisements changed over time?
Beauty and thinness are mutually inclusive meaning you can’t have one without the other. In other words,
women cannot be beautiful without being slim. These magazines also very conveniently promote a range of weight loss products. A classic example of women being sold an artificial reality for the purpose of exploitation and economic gain.
The “ideal” body shape is becoming slimmer and less curvaceous
What increases girls’ dissatisfaction with their own bodies?
Exposure to commercials containing images of females with idealized thin bodies
Hispanic-American girls are significantly more likely to develop disordered eating based on what factor?
To what degree to which they are Americanized.
What 2 factors might explain why some girls engage in extreme weight loss behaviors?
1) Girls whose mothers have body image problems
2) negative relationships with their parents
What are the 3 most common eating disorders during adolescence.
Binge eating disorder
What is the end goal of someone who has anorexia? What is the vehicle for achieving that goal?
What is the end goal of someone who has bulimia? What is the vehicle for achieving that goal?
Thinness (not to the same degree an anorexics)
Binge-purge cycle (purging is induced from either or both ends (mouth, anus)
Adolescents with anorexia and bulimia often have what?
An extremely disturbed body image: They see themselves as overweight when they are actually underweight
What percentage of their body weight will some adolescents with anorexia lose?
between 25% and 50% of their body weight
What percent of anorexic teenagers inadvertently starve themselves to death?
One of the primary differences between bulimia and binge eating is the absence of what?
Compensation (either out the mouth or out the anus)
individuals with binge eating disorder are at high risk for what?
What is the prevalence of anorexia and bulimia among adolescent girls?
Anorexia: Fewer than 1% Bulimia: about 3%
Anorexia and bulimia are how many times more prevalent among adolescent girls than boys?
Interestingly, what happens to this ratio for less severe forms of these disorders?
It gets substantially smaller for less severe forms of these disorders, meaning the negative effects are much less gender disproportionate.
What gender is more likely to suffer from BED?
binge eating disorder is only slightly more prevalent among females than males, which suggests that it may have an entirely different etiology
What is a common misassumption about eating disorders in terms of who they affect?
It is widely believed that eating disorders are especially common among affluent, suburban, White, and Asian American girls. However, systematic studies do not support this assumption. Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction have been reported among poor as well as affluent teenagers and among Black and Hispanic as well as Asian and White youngsters.
What percent of girls and boys whose weight was considered normal by medical and health standards believed that they were overweight?
More than 33%
Fewer than 7%
What percent of girls and boys, who were actually underweight by medical criteria, believed that they were overweight?
What percent of girls and boys reported that they would like to be thinner than they are?
Girls: More than 70%
What percent of girls said that being thinner would make them happier, more successful, and more popular?
more than 80%
Dissatisfaction with body shape and weight is likely to lead to what 3 negative outcomes?
1) the development of eating problems
3) the initiation of smoking
4) unhealthy fasting
5) vomiting after eating
6) using diet pills
More than half of high school girls have engaged in some form of 3-6 in order to lose weight.
Unfortunately, many girls gain weight during puberty, and for early adolescent girls, being overweight is highly correlated with what?
Perceived unattractiveness by
What research indicates that well-intentioned advice from adults that girls not place so much emphasis on being thin prove either ineffective or counterproductive?
The widespread belief among adolescent girls that being slim will increase their popularity, especially with boys, is in fact based in reality. That is, the pressure girls feel to be thin in order to attract boys does not just come from television, movies, and magazines—it comes from their actual experience. More specifically, each 1-point increase in a young woman’s BMI (an index of the degree to which she is overweight) was associated with a 6% decrease in the probability of her being in a romantic relationship. In that study, a 5-foot 3-inch girl who weighed 110 pounds was twice as likely to date as a girl of the same height and level of pubertal maturity who weighed 126 pounds.
If the idealized body image revolves around thinness for females, what is the idealized body image for males?
Muscularity (some engage in unhealthy behaviors, such as anabolic steroid use, in order to develop the idealized male body type)
If being heavy is the main source of body satisfaction among girls, what are the two main sources of body dissatisfaction for boys?
being heavy or being thin. In fact, boys are more likely to be teased for being underweight (and underdeveloped) than for being overweight
To what extent are prevalence of anorexia and bulimia attributable to cultural influences?
anorexia has been observed all over the world.
bulimia has been reported almost exclusively in Western cultures or in cultures exposed to strong Western influences, suggesting that bulimia is a much more culturally determined disorder than is anorexia.
The development of eating disorders are often linked to what other serious mental health problems?
2) obsessive-compulsive disorder
3) substance abuse
These studies suggest that anorexia and bulimia may be best understood as particular manifestations of a more general underlying psychological problem—called “internalized distress”.
Greater dissatisfaction with their body and at greater risk for disordered eating are more likely in girls who manifest what 2 factors?
girls who are early maturers and early daters
Girls are more susceptible to eating disorders if they manifest what 2 factors?
1) if they perceive that they are under pressure to be thin
2) if they have accepted thinness as an ideal toward which to strive
Turning to popular magazines for information about dieting and appearance has 3 detrimental likely consequences.
1) more likely to have a high drive for thinness
2) low body satisfaction, 3) disturbed patterns of eating
Adolescents’ beliefs and attitudes about eating, dieting and what constitutes the ideal body type are shape by who?
Parents (especially mothers for girls)
Being teased about one’s weight is especially likely to lead to what 2 negative consequences?
The development of disordered eating is likely the dynamic interplay between what factors?
1) cultural conditions
2)genetic vulnerabilities (eating disorders are partly heritable)
3) psychological traits (such as proneness to depression or low self-esteem)
4) physical characteristics (such as early pubertal maturation)
5) familial characteristics (such as strained relations with parents)
6) social concerns (such as a strong interest in dating)
All in all the onset of eating disorders is likely the product of a complex interaction between individual and contextual factors.
Among males body dissatisfaction is predictive of what 3 outcomes regardless of whether they are actually overweight.
2) unhealthy weight control behaviors
3) binge eating
What therapeutic approaches have been successful in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia?
The treatment of anorexia often requires ??? initially in order to ensure that starvation does not progress to fatal or near-fatal levels?
1) individual psychotherapy
2) cognitive behavioral therapy (especially good at treating bulimia)
3) group therapy
4) family therapy
5) antidepressant medications
Choosing from bulimia and anorexia which one has proven far more successful to treat and cure?
What are the most virulent threats to adolescent health?
1) unhealthy behaviors (such as drug use)
2) violence (both self-inflicted and inflicted by others)
3) risky activity (such as unprotected sexual intercourse or reckless driving)
Interestingly, although nearly 1 in 15 U.S. adolescents has at least one disabling chronic illness, with the main causes of disability being mental disorders such as depression, respiratory illnesses such as asthma, and muscular and skeletal disorders such as arthritis DISEASE AND ILLNESS DO NOT MAKE THE LIST.
Regarding adolescent problems, what trends have declined and what trends have remained consistent?
Declined: Motor vehicle deaths
the use of diet pills
rates of homicide
Have educational programs designed to reduce adolescents’ health risk behaviors been effective?
Due to this discouraging finding, some experts have called for a complete rethinking about how to reduce adolescent risk taking. Describe this rethinking. (2 aspects)
Rather than focusing on individual factors such as attitudes and beliefs, the focus needs to be more on contextual factors.
What is the difference between the old and new mortalities of adolescence?
Old: Fifty years ago, illness and disease accounted for more than twice as many deaths among teenagers as violence or injury.
New: Today, violence or injury account for more than twice as many deaths among teenagers as illness or disease ( the reverse of the old mortality)
What are the leading causes of adolescent death worldwide? (In descending order)
1) Unintentional injuries
3) infectious disease
Approximately what percent of all teenage deaths in the United States result from car accidents and other unintentional injuries?
Approximately what percent of teenage deaths in the United States result of homicide or suicide?
What are the 2 of the most important contributors to serious car accidents involving teenage drivers?
1) driving at night
2) driving with other teenagers in the car
What have many states implemented to address serious car accidents involving teenage drivers?
graduated driver licensing programs
These programs place restrictions on when and with whom teenagers can drive until they have gained sufficient experience. (these programs have reduced automobile fatalities)
Research has found that what 3 things established in adolescence consistently persists into adulthood?
patterns of diet
Patterns of drug use
Patterns of exercise
Non-White youngsters, are relatively more likely than White youngsters to suffer from what 9 problems?
1) suffer from a chronic illness
3) high blood pressure
4) high cholesterol levels
5) to be physically inactive
6) to be victims of violent crimes
7) to contract AIDS
8) to die from drowning
9) to be murdered
What is the leading cause of death for Black adolescents, accounting for almost half of all deaths among Black youth?
Which ethnic minority has the highest suicide of any other racial/ ethnic group?
American Indian/Alaska Native
Despite their generally poorer health, minority youngsters are less likely to have/do what?
1) access to sources of medical care
2) less likely to visit the doctor when ill
3) less likely to have health insurance