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Flashcards in Structure Function of CNS Deck (42):
1

4 Lobes

Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital

2

3 Fissures/Sulci

Central sulcus
Lateral fissure
Calcerine fissure

3

Corpus callosum

White matter connecting left and right hemispheres

4

Cerebellum

Base of brain responsible for balance, motor, and learning

5

Prefrontal Cortex Functions

Higher executive functions

6

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex

Abstract thinking
Planning
Reasoning

7

Anterior Cingulate Cortex

Emotional drive
Inhibition of inappropriate emotional responses
Dysfunction: apathy, lack of motivation

8

Orbitofrontal Cortex

Reviewing your actions, thoughts, impulse control, evaluating things
Dysfunction: aggressive behavior, sexual promiscuity, no filter

9

Pyramidal Motor Systems

Central nervous system

10

Extrapyramidal Motor Systems

Involuntary reflexes
Voluntary movement - fine motor skills and postural adjustments
Motor learning

11

Broca's Area

Motor components of speech - making sounds
Understanding sentence structure

12

Wernicke's Area

Understanding language

13

Extra Pyramidal System Key Structures

Caudate putamen = striatum - part of basal ganglia
Substantia Nigra too
DA receptors

14

Dysfunction of EPS

Tremor
Loss of gait
Inability to adjust posture
Loss of fine motor skills

15

Medial Temporal Lobe

Hippocampus - memory
Amygdala - fear, emotional learning, emotions

16

Insular Cortex

Pain perception
Self-awareness and consciousness
Inner fold of cortex in temporal lobe

17

Cells of the Brain

Neurons 100 billion (10%)
Glial cells 10x more than that! (90%)

18

Types of Synaptic Connections Between Neurons

Axodendritic
Axosomatic
Axoaxonic

19

Types of Glial Cells

Oligodendrocytes
Microglia
Astrocytes

20

Functions of Astrocytes

Supportive functions
Eat up excess neutrotransmitters
**Responders to injury, cytokine/inflammation, contribute to BBB**

21

Function of Oligodendrocytes

Myelin sheath production

22

Where is the CSF produced?

Ventricles

23

What is the purpose of the CSF?

Provide buoyancy/protection of brain inside of skull and spine

24

Function of microglia

Phagocytes

25

What types of substances are in CSF and why?

Small AAs, proteins, electrolytes because large molecules can't fit between tight junctions

26

How do neurons communicate with one another?

Electrochemical signals

27

Draw out an action potential

RMP (Na+K+ pump and K+ channels open) reaches threshold then voltage gated Na+ open then voltage gated K+ channels open then Na+ channels close and when hyperpolarization occurs, K+ channels occur until RMP is reached again

28

Neurotransmitter Release

Synaptic vesicles form and present to presynaptic terminal cell surface
Docking proteins grab the vesicle and extracellular Ca++ rushes in
Vesicle binds to surface and allows neurotransmitter to be released into synaptic cleft

29

5 Defining Features of a Neurotransmitter

1. Must be made in neuron
2. Must produce effect in postsynaptic neuron
3. Must be release in identifiable form
4. Must be in the terminal
5. Must have a method of termination

30

Types of Neurotransmitters

Biogenic
Amino Acids
Peptides

31

4 Dopamine Pathways

Nigrostriatal - EPS
Mesolimbic - memories, emotions, learning
Mesocortical - executive functions
Tuberofundibular - prolactin secretion

32

How does a typical DA neuron work?

Release and autoreceptors on presynaptic neuron = negative feedback

33

What is the main difference between D1 and D2 receptors?

D1 - stimulate DA synthesis
D2 - inhibit DA synthesis
Autoreceptors on postsynaptic neuron

34

Norepi Circulation and Synthesis

Tyr - L-DOPA - DOPA - NE

35

SR Biosynthesis and Neurons

Trp - 5-HT - Melatonin
Also have presynaptic autoreceptors

36

Ach Biosynthesis

Choline + acetate to acetylcholine
Choline brought into terminal and converted to Ach then passed through synapse to M and N receptors and AchE (breakdown!)

37

Muscarinic Receptors

Excitatory OR inhibitory postganglionic receptors
Blocker - atropine
G protein coupled cAMP

38

Nicotinic Receptors

Postganglionic AND neuromuscular receptors
Excitatory
Blocker - curare
Ligand gated ion channel

39

Glutamate and GABA synthesis

Glutamine to glutamate to GABA

40

Mechanisms of Termination

Reuptake
Degradation

41

Reuptake Inhibitors

SSRIs - SR
TCAs - NE
Cocaine - DA
Tiagibine - GABA

42

Degradative Inhibitors

Carbidopa - DA
MAOIs - NE, SR, DA
ACHEi - Ach