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Flashcards in Study Design Glossary Deck (32):

Behavioural determinants

Actions or patterns of living of an individual or a group that impact on health, such as smoking, sexual activity, participation in physical activity, eating practices


Bilateral aid

Where aid is given by one country directly to another. An example of bilateral aid is when Australia provides aid to East Timor


Biological determinants

Factors relating to the body that impact on health, such as genetics, hormones, body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels


Biomedical model of health

Focuses on the physical or biological aspects of disease and illness. It is a medical model of care practised by doctors and health professionals and is associated with the diagnosis, cure and treatment of diseases


Burden of disease

A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries.
Specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)


Determinants of health

'Factors that raise or lower a level of health in a population or individual. Determinants of health help to explain or predict trends in health and why some groups have better or worse health than others.' (AIHW, 2006)
Determinants can be classified in many ways such as biological, behavioural, physical environment and social


Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)

A measure of burden of disease, one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease and injury


Emergency aid

the rapid assistance given to people or countries in immediate distress to relieve suffering, during and after man-made emergencies such as wars and natural disasters such as flood, tsunami or earthquake. The term emergency aid can also be called 'humanitarian aid'


Food security

'The state in which all persons obtain nutritionally adequate, culturally appropriate, safe food regularly through local non-emergency sources.' (VicHealth, 2008)


Global health

The health of populations in a worldwide context that go beyond the perspectives and concerns of individual collaborative approach to achieving equity in health for all people worldwide



'A complete state of physical, social and mental wellbeing, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.' (WHO, 1946)


Health Adjusted Life Expectancy (HALE)

A measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality


Health status

'An individual's or a population's overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors.' (AIHW, 2008)


Human development

Creating an environment in which people can develop to their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. It is about expanding people's choices and enhancing capabilities (the range of things people can be and do), having access to knowledge, health and a decent standard of living, and participating in the life of their community and decisions affecting their lives. (Adapted from the Un Development Programme, 1990)


Human Development Index

A tool developed by the United Nations to measure and rank countries' levels of social and economic development. It provides a single statistic based of three dimensions - health, education and living standards, and four indicators - life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling and gross national income per capita. (Un Development Programme, 2011)


Life expectancy

'An indication of how long a person can expect to live, it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change.' (AIHW, 2008)


Mental dimensions of health

'State of wellbeing in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.' (WHO, 2009)



'Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.' (AIHW, 2008)


Mortality strata

The World Health Organisation classifies countries into 5 mortality strata based on the mortality rates of children under 5 years of age and adult males aged 15-59:
Mortality strata A - very low child mortality and very low adult mortality
Mortality strata B - low child mortality and low adult mortality
Mortality strata C - low child mortality and high adult mortality
Mortality strata D - high child mortality and high adult mortality
Mortality strata E - high child mortality and very high adult mortality


Multilateral aid

Where aid is provided through an international organisation, such as the World Bank, United Nations or World Health Organisation.
Multilateral aid combines donations from a number of countries and then distributes them to the recipients


National Health Priority Areas (NHPAs)

A collaborative initiative endorsed by the Commonwealth and all state and territory governments. The NHPA initiative seeks to focus the health sector's attention on diseases or conditions that have a major impact on the health of Australians. The NHPAs represent the disease groups with the largest burden of disease and potential costs (direct, indirect and intangible) to the Australian community


Non-government organisation (NGO) aid

NGOs take different approaches to aid, which include specific projects or programs, emergency aid, volunteering, education and development. The aid provided by NGOs often focus on communities


Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion

An approach to health development by the World Health Organisation which attempts to reduce inequalities in health. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion was developed from the social model of health and defines health promotion as 'the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health' (WHO1998).
The Ottawa Charter identifies three basic strategies for health promotion, which enabling, mediating and advocacy


Physical dimension of health

Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness


Physical environment

The physical surroundings in which we live, work and play. The physical environment includes water and air, workplaces, housing, roads, nature, schools, recreation settings and exposure to hazards



'The number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition present in a population at a given time.' (AIHW, 2008)


Social determinants

Aspects of society and the social environment that impact of health, such as poverty, early life experiences, social networks and support


Social development

Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way


Social model of health

A conceptual framework within which improvements in health and wellbeing are achieved by directing effort towards addressing the social, economic and environmental determinants of health. The model is based on the understanding that in order for health gains to occur, social, economic an environmental determinants must be addressed



'...meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.' (UN, 1987)


Under-five mortality rate

'The number of deaths of children under five years of age per 1000 live births.' (WHO, 2008)


Values that underpin Australia's health system

The values are effective, efficient, responsive, accessible, safe, continuous, sustainable