Flashcards in Study guide Deck (90):
A blanket of loose material that covers the majority of the Earths land surface. It's a dynamic mixture of minerals, decaying plants and animals (organic matter), microorganisms, water, and air
What fraction of a good, productive soil is pore space and what fraction is soilds?
% of each
What are the four components of soil and what % of each is found in a good/ideal soil?
25% air, 25% water 5% om 45% minerals
Why are pore spaces important?
for water movement
What is organic matter and why is it important?
It's the decomposition of dead plants and animals. It's important b/c its rich in nutrients and is responsible for half of the cation-exchange capacity of a soil.
What is soil texture? What are the three particle size classes in soil?
Three classes: sand, silt, and clay. Sand is biggest and clay is smallest
Which has the greatest overall pore space and can hold the most water?
Which has large pore sizes and drains very quickly?
which is the ideal soil texture for most plants?
What is cation exchange capacity and why is it important?
It's the relative capacity of the soil to attract and hold nutrients (cations) on the surface of the soil particles.
What is soil pH?
Its the measure of its acidity or alkalinity
What is the optimum pH range for most horticultural crops?
Name two cultivated plant species that have an optimum soil pH of 4.5-5.5
azalea and potato
essential elements for organic nutrients
C, H, O
essential elements for primary macronutrients
N, P, K
Ca, Mg, S
B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Ni
Which organic material will decompose more quickly?
Plants w/low C:N ratio will decompose quickly
Why can adding organic material w/a high C:N ratio cause a decrease in available N in soil?
B/c the N from the soil is tied up by the organisms which causes decomposition
What do the three #s on a fertilizer bag stand for?
N, P, K (nitrogen, phosphate, and potash)
all three #s are the same
Contain all 3 elements in varying amounts
Single element fertilizer
Contain only one of the 3 major nutrients
List four forms in which fertilizers can be applied
Liquids, soluble powders, granules, and tablets
What do you add to the soil to raise pH? What can be added to lower pH?
Lime to raise sulfur to lower
name five advantages of using mulch
Conserves moisture, stabilizes soil temp, suppression of weed growth, erosion control, ad winter protection
Name two perennial vegetables
asparagus and rhubarb
Name two biennial vegetables that are treated as annuals
beets and carrots
name four annual vegetable crops
peppers, squash, beans
What is the optimum temp for growth of cool season crops and 3 exs.
peas, potatoes, and beets
What is the optimum temp for growth of warm season crops and 3 exs.
tomatoes, peppers, and corn
Fruit of vegetable
beans and tomato
Edible vegetable seeds
Peas and sunflower
carrots and sweet potatoes
Modified stem, tightly surrounded by leafy scales. Onions and garlic
Tubers and rhizomes
Large fleshy storage stems, usually below ground. ex. potato and ginger
Usually the petiole of leafy vegetables. High in fiber and water. ex. celery and as[aragus
Vegetables grow for their 'greens'. high in fiber and vitamins. ex. lettuce and brussel sprouts
usually green; high in fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants. ex. broccoli and cauliflower
Avg. # of says from the last spring frost to earliest fall frost
Days to maturity
# of days from either seed (or transplant) to the time the crop is ready for harvest
To increase production of leafy vegetables, fertilizer high in what nutrient should be applied?
To increase production of roots or fruits, fertilizer high in what nutrients should be applied?
Potassium and phosphorus
planting vegetables seeds several weeks apart to ensure maturation at different times and therefore continuous harvest
a form of vegetable gardening that involves planting vegetables in groups of blocks rather than rows
a group of seeds planted close together; hill planting is common for melons and squash
sowing seeds of a quick-maturing vegetable w/seeds of a slower one or between transplants; the fast-maturing vegetable is then harvested before it begins to crowd the main crop
removal of excess seedlings that are spaced too closely for best growth
What is mulching and why is it important?
Mulch is a layer of plant-derived or synthetic material laid on the soil surface over the roots of plants. It reduced the time spent weeding and helps the plant.
What is crop rotation and why is it important
The planting of crops in different areas of the garden every year. It deters the buildup of disease organisms and insects associated w/a particular crop
Used to maintain fertility in established vegetable gardens
Green manure crop
Used to improve poor soil before a garden is planted
Top 3 vegetable crops in the U.S.?
corn, soybeans, wheat
What are three major factors that determine what species of tree fruits/nuts can be grown?
Climate, property size, expected maintenance time
Which requires more sunlight, fruit or nut trees
fruit needs more
Is it better to grow fruit trees on a slope or in a valley? why?
grow on upper part of slope to protect against frost injury
When selecting species and cultivars of tree fruits/nuts, what factors should be considered?
Winter hardiness, required fruit maturity period, disease resistance, fruit use, fruit appearance, pollination requirements
What are the approximate height ranges (in ft.) for standard, semi-dwarf, and dwarf trees?
Standard: 20-25 ft across 25 ft tall
Semi-dwarf: 10-15 ft. tall
Dwarf: 5-12 ft tall
Why is pruning of fruit trees important?
So you can have strong branches that are capable of supporting heavy weight of fruit
Name three pruning styles that used for fruit trees
1. Central leader
3. vase form or open center form
Name four reasons why a fruit tree may fail to bear fruit
2. pollination problems
3. insufficient winter chilling
4. insufficient sunlight
5. frost or rain during pollination
Name two types of fruits that are part of a group called brambles
Blackberries and raspberries
What type of blackberry does better in the south?
Trailing types grow better in south
What is different about the fruit of blackberries compared to the fruit of raspberries
When blackberries are picked the center core remains with the berry, but when raspberries are picked the center core remains on the plant.
What two small/bush fruits like acid soils
blueberries and cranberries
Name two fruit species that do well in Northern U.S. but don't like the heat of the south
Currants and gooseberries
What type of grapes grow best in the south
What is the difference between spring bearing and everbearing types of strawberries
Everbearing types produce lightly throughout the summer until fall.
landscaping with drought tolerant plants
Hybrid tea roses
Large blossoms produced singly on moderate-sized, bushy plants
Bear their blooms in clusters through summer and have blooms generally smaller than those of teas
cross between floribundas and hybrid teas
have long canes that grow from the base of the plant. very large and trained along fences and garde
hybrid tea, grandiflora, or floribunda roses. They are grafted on to long-cane hardy species to achieve a tree form
Name four aesthetic benefits of using indoor plants
fill in gaps, fragrance, window displays, brighten up areas
Other than aesthetics, what benefit is provided by indoor plants?
Provide improved indoor air quality
What 5 indoor environmental conditions must be considered when choosing indoor plants?
light, temp, humidity, water quality, containerization, and air circulation
How does insufficient light affect houseplants? How does too much light affect houseplants?
Low light levels can lead to a decline in health (of plant). too much light can lead to scorching of foliage
Why can warmer night temps inside (compared to outside) negatively affect plants?
B/c plants dont need as many fluctuations. and it produces lower carb reserves and less energy for new growth
What is the min. humidity level for most houseplants?
name two ways to increase humidity levels near houseplants
mist plants daily OR place on a tray of damp gravel
What chemicals in tap water can affect plant growth?
Chlorine, sodium or fluoride
How does limited air circulation affect indoor plants?
Less movement of O and CO2
What plant characteristics should be considered when choosing house plants?
General attractiveness, appearance and size at maturity, growth cycle, and growth rate
Name 3 foliage plants
Zebra plant, rubber plant, and spider plant
Name 3 flowering plants
African violet, cycleman, hibiscus
Do more houseplants die from overwatering or from drought?
die from overwatering
What do brown leaf tips and margins indicate?
Indicates that the compost/soil or atmosphere is too dry
Fertilizer with what two nutrients is best to encourage flowering?
Phosphorous and Potassium