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Flashcards in Study guide Deck (90):
1

Soil

A blanket of loose material that covers the majority of the Earths land surface. It's a dynamic mixture of minerals, decaying plants and animals (organic matter), microorganisms, water, and air

2

What fraction of a good, productive soil is pore space and what fraction is soilds?

% of each

3

What are the four components of soil and what % of each is found in a good/ideal soil?

25% air, 25% water 5% om 45% minerals

4

Why are pore spaces important?

for water movement

5

What is organic matter and why is it important?

It's the decomposition of dead plants and animals. It's important b/c its rich in nutrients and is responsible for half of the cation-exchange capacity of a soil.

6

What is soil texture? What are the three particle size classes in soil?

Three classes: sand, silt, and clay. Sand is biggest and clay is smallest

7

Which has the greatest overall pore space and can hold the most water?

Clay

8

Which has large pore sizes and drains very quickly?

sand

9

which is the ideal soil texture for most plants?

loam

10

What is cation exchange capacity and why is it important?

It's the relative capacity of the soil to attract and hold nutrients (cations) on the surface of the soil particles.

11

What is soil pH?

Its the measure of its acidity or alkalinity

12

What is the optimum pH range for most horticultural crops?

5-7

13

Name two cultivated plant species that have an optimum soil pH of 4.5-5.5

azalea and potato

14

essential elements for organic nutrients

C, H, O

15

essential elements for primary macronutrients

N, P, K

16

Secondary macronutrients

Ca, Mg, S

17

Micronutrients

B, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Zn, Ni

18

Which organic material will decompose more quickly?

Plants w/low C:N ratio will decompose quickly

19

Why can adding organic material w/a high C:N ratio cause a decrease in available N in soil?

B/c the N from the soil is tied up by the organisms which causes decomposition

20

What do the three #s on a fertilizer bag stand for?

N, P, K (nitrogen, phosphate, and potash)

21

Balanced fertilizer

all three #s are the same

22

Complete fertilizer

Contain all 3 elements in varying amounts

23

Single element fertilizer

Contain only one of the 3 major nutrients

24

List four forms in which fertilizers can be applied

Liquids, soluble powders, granules, and tablets

25

What do you add to the soil to raise pH? What can be added to lower pH?

Lime to raise sulfur to lower

26

name five advantages of using mulch

Conserves moisture, stabilizes soil temp, suppression of weed growth, erosion control, ad winter protection

27

Name two perennial vegetables

asparagus and rhubarb

28

Name two biennial vegetables that are treated as annuals

beets and carrots

29

name four annual vegetable crops

peppers, squash, beans

30

What is the optimum temp for growth of cool season crops and 3 exs.

60-75
peas, potatoes, and beets

31

What is the optimum temp for growth of warm season crops and 3 exs.

80-95
tomatoes, peppers, and corn

32

Fruit of vegetable

beans and tomato

33

Edible vegetable seeds

Peas and sunflower

34

Root ex.

carrots and sweet potatoes

35

Bulbs

Modified stem, tightly surrounded by leafy scales. Onions and garlic

36

Tubers and rhizomes

Large fleshy storage stems, usually below ground. ex. potato and ginger

37

Above-ground stems

Usually the petiole of leafy vegetables. High in fiber and water. ex. celery and as[aragus

38

Leaves

Vegetables grow for their 'greens'. high in fiber and vitamins. ex. lettuce and brussel sprouts

39

flowers

usually green; high in fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants. ex. broccoli and cauliflower

40

Frost-free period

Avg. # of says from the last spring frost to earliest fall frost

41

Days to maturity

# of days from either seed (or transplant) to the time the crop is ready for harvest

42

To increase production of leafy vegetables, fertilizer high in what nutrient should be applied?

Nitrogen

43

To increase production of roots or fruits, fertilizer high in what nutrients should be applied?

Potassium and phosphorus

44

Succession cropping

planting vegetables seeds several weeks apart to ensure maturation at different times and therefore continuous harvest

45

Block gardening

a form of vegetable gardening that involves planting vegetables in groups of blocks rather than rows

46

Hill

a group of seeds planted close together; hill planting is common for melons and squash

47

Interplanting

sowing seeds of a quick-maturing vegetable w/seeds of a slower one or between transplants; the fast-maturing vegetable is then harvested before it begins to crowd the main crop

48

Thinning

removal of excess seedlings that are spaced too closely for best growth

49

What is mulching and why is it important?

Mulch is a layer of plant-derived or synthetic material laid on the soil surface over the roots of plants. It reduced the time spent weeding and helps the plant.

50

What is crop rotation and why is it important

The planting of crops in different areas of the garden every year. It deters the buildup of disease organisms and insects associated w/a particular crop

51

cover crop

Used to maintain fertility in established vegetable gardens

52

Green manure crop

Used to improve poor soil before a garden is planted

53

Top 3 vegetable crops in the U.S.?

corn, soybeans, wheat

54

What are three major factors that determine what species of tree fruits/nuts can be grown?

Climate, property size, expected maintenance time

55

Which requires more sunlight, fruit or nut trees

fruit needs more

56

Is it better to grow fruit trees on a slope or in a valley? why?

grow on upper part of slope to protect against frost injury

57

When selecting species and cultivars of tree fruits/nuts, what factors should be considered?

Winter hardiness, required fruit maturity period, disease resistance, fruit use, fruit appearance, pollination requirements

58

What are the approximate height ranges (in ft.) for standard, semi-dwarf, and dwarf trees?

Standard: 20-25 ft across 25 ft tall
Semi-dwarf: 10-15 ft. tall
Dwarf: 5-12 ft tall

59

Why is pruning of fruit trees important?

So you can have strong branches that are capable of supporting heavy weight of fruit

60

Name three pruning styles that used for fruit trees

1. Central leader
2. modified
3. vase form or open center form

61

Name four reasons why a fruit tree may fail to bear fruit

1. age
2. pollination problems
3. insufficient winter chilling
4. insufficient sunlight
5. frost or rain during pollination

62

Name two types of fruits that are part of a group called brambles

Blackberries and raspberries

63

What type of blackberry does better in the south?

Trailing types grow better in south

64

What is different about the fruit of blackberries compared to the fruit of raspberries

When blackberries are picked the center core remains with the berry, but when raspberries are picked the center core remains on the plant.

65

What two small/bush fruits like acid soils

blueberries and cranberries

66

Name two fruit species that do well in Northern U.S. but don't like the heat of the south

Currants and gooseberries

67

What type of grapes grow best in the south

Fresh-american hybrid

68

What is the difference between spring bearing and everbearing types of strawberries

Everbearing types produce lightly throughout the summer until fall.

69

xeriscaping?

landscaping with drought tolerant plants

70

Hybrid tea roses

Large blossoms produced singly on moderate-sized, bushy plants

71

Floribunda rose

Bear their blooms in clusters through summer and have blooms generally smaller than those of teas

72

Grandiflora rose

cross between floribundas and hybrid teas

73

climbing rose

have long canes that grow from the base of the plant. very large and trained along fences and garde

74

tree rose

hybrid tea, grandiflora, or floribunda roses. They are grafted on to long-cane hardy species to achieve a tree form

75

Name four aesthetic benefits of using indoor plants

fill in gaps, fragrance, window displays, brighten up areas

76

Other than aesthetics, what benefit is provided by indoor plants?

Provide improved indoor air quality

77

What 5 indoor environmental conditions must be considered when choosing indoor plants?

light, temp, humidity, water quality, containerization, and air circulation

78

How does insufficient light affect houseplants? How does too much light affect houseplants?

Low light levels can lead to a decline in health (of plant). too much light can lead to scorching of foliage

79

Why can warmer night temps inside (compared to outside) negatively affect plants?

B/c plants dont need as many fluctuations. and it produces lower carb reserves and less energy for new growth

80

What is the min. humidity level for most houseplants?

40%

81

name two ways to increase humidity levels near houseplants

mist plants daily OR place on a tray of damp gravel

82

What chemicals in tap water can affect plant growth?

Chlorine, sodium or fluoride

83

How does limited air circulation affect indoor plants?

Less movement of O and CO2

84

What plant characteristics should be considered when choosing house plants?

General attractiveness, appearance and size at maturity, growth cycle, and growth rate

85

Name 3 foliage plants

Zebra plant, rubber plant, and spider plant

86

Name 3 flowering plants

African violet, cycleman, hibiscus

87

Do more houseplants die from overwatering or from drought?

die from overwatering

88

What do brown leaf tips and margins indicate?

Indicates that the compost/soil or atmosphere is too dry

89

Fertilizer with what two nutrients is best to encourage flowering?

Phosphorous and Potassium

90

What nutrient encourages foliage growth?

Nitrogen