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1

IT

study, design, development, application, implementation, support/mgt of computer based IS

2

Hardware

any physical items that comprises a computer system
-monitor, keyboard, mouse, microchips, disk drive (anything that can be touched)

3

Software

combo of programs (manipulate data) and instruct hardware
-provides instruction to hdwr; serves as input to other software
-intangible

4

Network

collection of hdwr devices interconnected to communicate among themselves
-share and communicate data (internet, intranet)

5

Data

info stored in hdwr

6

BIS

business info system in any combo of hdwr, sftwr, data, ppl, procedures employed to pursue org obj

7

Strategic roles of BIS suppor

business processes and ops
DM (create A/R aging report to know customer's credit)
mgrs in future planning

8

Stakeholders

those who affect or are affected by output of IS
-interest in effective and efficient functioning
-mgrs, employees, suppliers, customers

9

RSS

rich site summary
allows content of website w/frequent changes to be pulled and fed to user's computer
-saves time

10

cloud computing

apps and data stored on internet

advantage
-low infrastructure and maint costs
-more mobility
-less personnel and utility costs

disadvantage
-less ctrl
-more difficult to ensure privacy/security
-less compatible with existing tools/sftwr

11

TPS

most common type of system used in BIS
trans is single discrete event that can be stored in IS (movement of RM from storage to production, issue PO, sale)
captures data that reflects economic life of org (example- AIS)

12

Transaction processing modes

way system updated with new data
-batch
-online

13

Centralized IT Structure

central location
users connect to mainframe via "dumb terminals" (monitor and keyboard combo w/o processing pwr)
adv
-consistent processing
-better more efficient security

14

Decentralized IT structure

each branch stores and processes data onsite and transmits results overnight to mainframe at home office

adv
-more accountability over data process
-no bottlenecks of traffic over ntwk

15

Data capture

entering data into IS
two types
-batch-group of records at one time
-online- single records w/ user getting immediate feedback

16

POS trans help mgt

ID and respond to trends
make sales forecasts
determine product demand
improve customer svc
target products to customer from different demos
evaluate effects of promotions

17

Processing

convert raw data into usable info
performed by hdwr and sftwr

18

Types of data files

master- static (vendor #, name, address) or volatile (general ledger file-holds balances of all accts in ledger)

transaction- reflect ongoing business activity, indiv purchases from vendors or general j.e.

19

REA Processing

Resources, Events, Agents processing
uses double entry (debit and credit) by single entry
uses relational database to store/process trans
each trans (event) stored in table chron and linked to other table with trans details
process thru queries to table
-calculate sales for pd by summing and AR balance for pd end by summing

20

REA
advantages vs disadvantages

advantages
-debits & credits not considered
-no GL is maintained, balances calculated thru queries
-ad hoc reports easily produced (list of customers who purchased products bet certain dates)

disadvantage
-costly
-lots of computer storage and processing needed
-accountants and auditors unfamiiar, training needs are high and acceptance may be low

21

Push reporting

electronic distribution of reports digitally to personnel

22

MIS

receives input from trans processing systems, aggregates it, report in form for mgt
classified by function or activity

-acctg, finance, mfg, logistics, mkting, HR

23

stovepipe systems

single function systems
limited focus
being replaced by integrated systems linking multi business activities, most cmprehensive is ERP

24

AIS

subsystem of MIS
processes routine, highly structured financial/trans data relevant to mgrl/financial acctg

concern
-trans w/ ext parties (follow GAAP)
-internal activies in cost acctg systems, prep of related report/analyses (pro forma, budget)

25

ERP

manage org resources
integrate enterprise wide info systems into 1 database linked to all org's apps

subsumes traditional MISs

subsystem shares data to coordinate activities

disadvantage
-extent, complexity makes implementing difficult and $$$$

26

Back office functions

subsystem of ERP internal to org
info primariy for internal use

27

Front office functions

connect org with customers, suppliers, owners, creditors

28

Data Warehouse

central dbs for trans level data from more than 1 of org's TPS
-only query and reporting system, not used for routine ops
-gets input from various TPSs in org

29

OLAP

online analytical processing
graphic tool that can access data warehouse

important component is drill down analysis

30

data mining

search for unexpected relationships among data