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Operating system

negotiates conversation bet hardware, app user runs, and data app works with
-Windows, OS X


Utility programs

performs basic functions that are not particular to a certain application and file access ctrl
-copy, delete, merge


App software

programs tell computer steps user wants carried out; purchase from vendor or developed internally


1st gen language

machine language
binary code unique to each type of computer
understood by computer


3rd gen language

procedural or programming language
English like words/phrases represent multiple machine language instructions; easier to learn
converted to machine language by compilation or interpretation


4th gen language

problem oriented or nonprocedural
permit nonspecialized user to describe problem to and receive guidance from computer rather than specify a procedure (CAAT)



HTML- authoring software language to create & link sites
XML-open std usable w/ many programs and platforms
XBRL- extensible business reporting language
-developed by AICPA led consortium for commercial and industrial entities that report using GAAP
-variation of XML, decrease costs of generating fin reports, reformulate for diff users, sharing business info using e-media


bit vs byte

field vs record vs key vs file

0 or 1
byte- 8 bits
field- data item contains info about entity; group of bytes
record- group of fields
key- field or combo of fields on each record; must contain enough info to ID each record (no 2 records with the same key)
-allows for sorting and efficient managing
file- group of records


flat files

oldest file structure, records continuously stored


Hierarchical (tree) database

records form branches and leaves from a root


Relational Databases

have cardinality and referential integrity
cardinality-proximity of data element is to being unique (normal when d.e. isn't unique but has restricted range of values, low when small range of values, T/F)
referential integrity- to enter record to in table, must be a record in some other table

advantage- ease of search


Object Oriented Databases

response to need to store graphics and multimedia apps used by object oriented programming languages, C++ and Java
-translating this into tables and rows is hard



database mgt systems
integrated set of software tools imposed on data files that maintain integrity of underlying db
-maint of relational db practical
allows programmers and designers to work indep of physical and logical structure of db



layouts of tables and constraints on entering new records
DBMS automates process of enforcing the schea


2 vital parts of DBMS

data definition lang- user can specify how table will look & kinds of data elements will hold

data manipulation- adds, deletes, modifies records and data elements


data dictionary

physical and logical charact of every data element in a db
contains size, format, usage, meaning, ownership, of every data element and what person, etc use data element


distributed database

stored in 2 or more physical sites
-replication (snapshot) DBMS duplicate whole db & sends to multiple location; changes periodically copied and distributed
-fragmentation (partitioning) records stored where most needed; info retrieved via comm lines


Organizational needs assessment

study/evaluation of how IS deploy to help org meet its goals; steps in assessment
-determine if systems support org goals
-determine needs unmet by current systems
-determine capacity of current systems to accommodate projected growth
-propose path for IS deployment to achieve org goals w/in budget constraints


business process

flow of actions performed on goods and info to complete discrete obj
-hire employee, recruit customer


business process reengineering

rethink business function performance to provide value to customers (radical innovation, not improvement)


Systems Development Life Cycle

methodology applied to development of large, highly structured app system
-enhanced mgt and control of development process


SDLC steps

1. initiation, feasability, planning
2. req analysis and definition
3. system design
4. build and development
5. Testing and QC
6. acceptance, installation, implementation
7. ops and maintenance


Initiation, feasibility, planning

recognize need for new system, gain understanding of situation to see if feasible to creat soln, make plan


req analysis and definition

formal proposal for new system submitted
feasibility studies determine- tech req, econ resources committed to new system, how new system affects current ops
get go-ahead for project


System Design

mapping flow and storage of data elements used by new system and new program modules that will compose new system
-data flow diagrams
physical design - planning interactions of new program code and data elements w/ hdwr platform


Build and Development

actual program code and db structures used in new system
hdwr acquired and physical infrastructure is assembled


Testing and Control

testing performed while system is built, feedback used to improve perf and function


Acceptance, Installation, Implementation

final step before place system in operation
-must demonstrate functionality
4 strategies convert to new system
-parallel op- old and new both run at full capacity (safest, $$$$, time consuming)
-cutover conversion- old system shut down, new one takes over processing (least $, risky)
-pilot conversion-1 branch, dept at a time fully converted to new system; experience benefits, but time consuming
-phases- 1 function of the new system placed in operation; advantage allows users to learn 1 pt at a time


Ops and Maintenance

after operational, monitor system for ongoing perf and improvement
systems follow up or post audit eval is subsequent review of efficiency and effectiveness after operated for time (at least 1 yr)



alt approach to app development
create working model, demonstrate, get feedback, make changes
-repeats until user satisfied