Stuff for 1st Test that no one taught us from the E-Book Flashcards Preview

Contemporary Practice of Medicine > Stuff for 1st Test that no one taught us from the E-Book > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stuff for 1st Test that no one taught us from the E-Book Deck (15):
1

Self-selection (volunteer bias)

People who are at greater risk for outcome are more likely to participate

2

Healthy user bias

Healthier individuals enroll in a study and are less likely to develoop out come of interest

3

Nonresponse bias

Responders to surveys differ from nonresponders

4

Interviewer and surveillance bias

Interviewer - different data collection methods results in more aggressive acquisitoon of one group

Surv - more frwquent follow up or diagnositc

5

Internal validity

Degree to which the results of a study are true for the pop being studied

Chance and bias will impact

6

Exteneral validity

Generalizability

Degree to which results are true for braoder population

7

Case control study types of bias of note

More have some degree of selection bias

Ideal for rare conditions or long-term outcomes

8

Cohort study types of bias

Lower selection bias

UNqiue is surveillance bias

Loss to follow up bias also possible

9

Type 1
Type 2
Power

Type 1 - Falsely claiming a difference

Type 2 - Falsey claiming the groups are the same

Power - Probability of detecting a truly effective interventione

100%-beta

10

Allocation concealment

Investigator in charge should be unaware of assignment selection

11

Simple

Block

Stratified Block design

Coin flip or number generator

Predetermind size is randomized to groups

Patients randomized within subgroups

12

Cointervention and ascertainment bias

Provision of addtional therapy to one group bc of assignment

MIsinterpret data based on knowledge of the assignment

13

Meta-analysis vs. systematic reveiw

Sys - selection of studies and summary of individual study results

Meta - extraction of individual study data...pooled average result across all stides...uses a forest plot

14

Q-test

Heterogeneity test

Minimmal I2 = 25
Moderate =50
Substantial = 75

15

Publication bias and funnel plots

Positive studies more likely to be published than not

Funnel used to assess for publication bias