Test 2 LEcture Flashcards Preview

Contemporary Practice of Medicine > Test 2 LEcture > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 LEcture Deck (12):
1

primary, secondary and tertiary prevention

Primary - avert the occurrence of a dz or injury...might be the best way

seoncdary - early detection and intervention to slow or reverse

Tertiary - dz management to improve patient function

2

RCT things that still might not be good

Outcome assessment or follow-up

3

Random error and how to reduce

Larger population

4

Graph of 1 and 2 erorrs

1 will be closer to the non-control group

5

Radndomization

Each pt has equal chance to be assigned

Also random allocation

6

Stratified randomization

Balance randomization across a confounder

7

Allocation concealment

Person enrolling patients i unaware of the assignment...occurs prior to or time of randomization

May use a sealed envelope

Lack of concealment is a source of selection bias bc characteristics may change allocation

8

Patient outcomes

Patient recall (most subjective)

Discharge dx (better)

Case definition (best)

9

Intention to tx

Once randomized, always analyzed

Preserves baseline comparibility
Simplifies dealing with missing outcomes and poor adherence

Addresses withdrawl

Reflects real owrld outcomes from a tx

Need to enroll more pts to account for those that don't finish...may underestimate effect size

10

Assessing directness

DIff bt pop and study participants (Table)

Diff in tx of pop and study part

Use of surrogate outcome measures instead of outcome of interest

INdirect comparioson bt presence/absence of exppsore or risk factor (combinatorial appraoch)

11

How to assess consistency

Effect estimates across subgroups and outcome measures

Heterogeneity is minimal

12

Assessing precision

Use the CI