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Flashcards in Substance Disorders & Treatment Deck (153)
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1

Define Substance Use

Sporadic consumption of alcohol/drugs with no adverse consequences

2

Define Abuse

Frequency of alcohol/drug use may vary, there are adverse consequences experienced by the user
Increase in the frequency to eventually all day

3

Define Physical Dependence

State of adaptation that is manifested by a drug class-specific withdrawal syndrome

4

Define Psychological Dependence

Subjective need for a specific psychoactive substance, either for its positive effect or to avoid negative effects of its abstinence
Positive: euphoric
Negative: withdrawal

5

Define Addiction

Primary, chronic, neurobiology disease, with genetic, psychosocial, & environmental factors

6

What is addiction characterized by?

Behaviors that include impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm & craving

7

Define Tolerance

Must increase dose of the substance to get the high associated with the substance

8

Special Populations with Increase Risk of Substance Abuse

Adolescents
Anyone with a psychiatric comorbidity
Those who smoke or who abuse alcohol
Elderly
Health care workers
Pregnant women

9

What questions to ask for each substance the patient uses?

Quantity
Amount $ daily/weekly/monthly
Frequency of use & time of last use
Route of administration
Prior detox or addiction treatment & abstinence periods

10

Physical Changes in Substance Abuse

Impotence
Weight loss
Sleep disturbance
Localized or systemic infections
Enlarged/shrunken liver
Respiratory or nasal problems
Track marks
STI's

11

CAGE Questionnaire

C: cut down on drinking
A: annoyed by criticism of your drinking
G: guilty about drinking
E: eye-opener (morning)

12

Define risky or hazardness drinking

Men 14 drinks/week
Women 7 drinks/week

13

Define Unhealthy Alcohol Use

Uses that can result in health consequences

14

Alcohol abuse is associated with one or more of the following occurring in a 12-month period

Failure to fulfill work, school or social obligations
Recurrent substance use in physically hazardous situations
Recurrent legal problems related to substance use
Continued use despite alcohol-related social or interpersonal problems

15

Alcohol dependece is a maladaptive patterns of use associated with 3 or more of the following, occurring at any time in the same 12-month period

Tolerance
Withdrawal
Substance taken in larger quantity than intended
Persistent desire to cut down or control use
Time spent obtaining, using, or recovering from the substance
Social, occupational or recreational tasks are sacrificed
Use continues despite physical & psychosocial problems

16

Medical Morbidity with Alcohol Abuse

HTN, cardiomyopathy
Hepatitis, cirrhosis, pancreatitis
TB, pneumonia
Anxiety, depression & eating disorders
CA of the stomach, mouth, larynx, breast, & esophagus

17

Screening Tools for Alcohol Use/Abuse

Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)
CAGE questions

18

Which patients are essential for screening for alcohol use/abuse?

+ family history
Smoke
Frequent ER visits
On meds that interact with ETOH

19

Screening Tool for Adolescents & College Students

CRAFFT

20

What does CRAFFT stand for?

ridden in Car driven by someone
alcohol or drugs to Relax, feel better about yourself, or fit in
alcohol or drugs while Alone
Forget things while on alcohol/drugs
family/Friends tell you to cut down on drinking/drug use
Trouble while using alcohol/drugs

21

Define Moderate Drinking

Men:

22

Define Heavy Drinking

Men: >14 drinks/week or >4 drinks/occasion

23

Define Binge Drinking

Men: 5+ drinks in a row
Women: 4+ drinks in a row

24

Define drink of 80-proof liquor

1.5 fluid ounces

25

Define drink of wine

5 fluid ounces

26

Define drink of beer or wine cooler

12 fluid ounces

27

Etiology of Alcohol-Related Disorders

Psychosocial factors
Genetic factors
Behavioral factors

28

How does genetics play a factor in alcohol-related issues?

3-4 x higher for ETOH problems in first degree relatives with ETOH problems
Problems increase with # of alcoholic relatives & severity

29

What does pylorospasm result in?

Vomiting

30

What 2 enzymes metabolize alcohol?

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)