Substance-Related Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Substance-Related Disorders Deck (37):
1

To use wrongfully or in a harmful way . Improper treatment or conduct that may result in injury

Abuse

2

A compulsive or chronic requirement. The need is so strong as to generate distress ( either physical or psychological ) if left unfulfilled

Dependence

3

A physical and mental state of exhilaration and emotional frenzy or lethargy and stupor

Intoxication

4

The physiological and mental readjustment that accompanies the discontinuation of an addictive substance

Withdrawal

5

1. Peripheral neuropathy
2. Alcoholic myopathy
3. Wernicke's encephalopathy
4. Korsakoff's psychosis
5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy
6. Esophagitis
7. Gastritis
8. Pancreatitis
9. Alcoholic hepatitis
10. Cirrhosis of the liver
11. Leukopenia
12. Thrombocytopenia
13. Sexual dysfunction

Alcohol - CNS depressants - effects on the body

6

Tremors, N&V,malaise, weakness, tachycardia, sweating, elevated BP, anxiety, irritability, headache, insomnia, seizures

Alcohol - withdrawal symptoms ( 4-6 hours after last drink )

7

Barbiturates, nonbarbiturates hypnotics and antianxiety agents

Sedatives, Hypnotics, or Anxiolytics

8

1. Effects on sleep and dreaming
2. Respiratory depression
3. Cardiovascular : hypotension
4. Hepatic effects - jaundice ; renal
5. Decrease in body temperature
6. Sexual dysfunction

Sedatives, Hypnotics, or Anxiolytics - CNS depressants - effects on the body

9

N&V, malaise, weakness, tachycardia, sweating, anxiety, irritability, tremors, seizures

Sedatives, Hypnotics, or Anxiolytics - withdrawal symptoms ( within one week of last use)

10

1. Relaxation
2. Loss of inhibition
3. Lack of concentration
4. Drowsiness
5. Slurred speech
6. Sleep

CNS depressants - symptoms of use

11

Amphetamine and related drugs; cocaine ; caffeine, nicotine

CNS stimulants

12

1. Hyperactivity
2. Euphoria
3. Restlessness
4. Talkativeness
5. Increased pulse

CNS stimulants - symptoms of use

13

1. CNS: tremors, restlessness ...
2. Cardiovascular/pulmonary : increased BP, HR, relax bronchial smooth muscles
3. GI/GU: constipation, anorexia, urinary retention
4. Sexual: aphrodisiac effect

CNS stimulants - effects on body

14

Depression, anxiety, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, hypersomnia, paranoid or suicidal ideation, apathy, social withdrawal ;

Cocaine + amphetamines - withdrawal symptoms ( within 2-4 days)

15

Large doses of the drug can result in convulsions or death from cardiac arrhythmias or respiratory paralysis

Cocaine

16

Refers to a group of compounds that includes opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes

Opioid

17

1. Opium
2. Morphine
3. Codeine

Opioids of natural origin

18

1. Heroin
2. Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
3. Oxycodone
4. Hydrocodone

Opioid derivatives

19

1. Meperidine (Demerol)
2. Methadone ( Dolophine)
3. ....

Synthetic Opiate-like Drugs

20

1. CNS: euphoria, mental clouding, pupillary constriction , respiratory depression , N/V
2. GI: treatment of diarrhea; constipation, fecal impaction
3. Cardiac: hypotension
4. Sexual : decrease

Opioids - effects on the body

21

1. Craving for the drug
2. N/V
3. Muscle aches
4. Lacrimation/ rhinorrhea (tears/nose)
5. Pupillary dilation
6. Sweating, diarrhea, fever, insomnia

Opioids - withdrawal ( 6-8 hr , peak 2 or 3 day, disappear in 7-10 days )

22

CIWA-Ar

The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, Revised ; used to assess risk and severity of withdrawal from alcohol

23

CAGE

questionnaire for determining whether an individual has a problem with substances

24

ND for the clients withdrawing from CNS depressants : tremors, hypertension, N&V, hallucinations, illusions, tachycardia, anxiety, seizures

Risk for injury

25

ND for the clients withdrawing from CNS stimulants : intense feeling of depression, "crashing", suicidal ideation

Risk for suicide

26

Disulfiram ( Antabuse )

provides measure of control for the individual who desires to avoid impulse drinking

27

Occur within 5-10 min of ingestion of alcohol
1. Flushed skin
2. Respiratory difficulty
3. N&V, dizziness
4. Hypotension, blurred vision, confusion
5. Respiratory depression, MI, acute CHF, convulsions, death

Disulfiram alcohol reaction

28

1. Should not be administered - at least 12 hr abstained from alcohol
2. When discontinued - 2 weeks alcohol sensitivity
3. Aware of alcohol containing substances - vanilla extract, nail polish remover...
4. Contraindicated for clients with high risk for alcohol ingestion

Nursing responsibilities - Disulfiram

29

Chlordiazepoxide (Librium )

benzodiazepine - substitution therapy in alcohol withdrawal ; used to relive anxiety and to control agitation caused by alcohol

30

Phenobarbital

anticonvulsant - for management of alcohol withdrawal seizures

31

Methadone ( Dolophine )

to suppress opioid withdrawal symptoms

32

1. Know it is for for short term use
2. Tapered down over time
3. Taken in addition to rest, adequate nutrition and psychotherapy

Nursing responsibilities - Methadone

33

Naloxone ( Narcan)

narcotic antagonist, complete or partial reversal of opioid depression

34

n/v, sweating, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tremulousness, seizures, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrest which may result in death

Side effects of Narcan

35

N&V, diarrhea, diaphoresis

Heroin withdrawal

36

1. Paralysis of the ocular muscles
2. Diplopia (double vision)
3. Ataxia (lack of voluntary coordination)
4. Somnolence and stupor - death

Wernicke's encephalopathy - thiamine deficiency in alcoholics

37

1. Confusion
2. Loss of recent memory
3. Confabulation - honest lying

Korsakoff's psychosis - frequently encountered in clients recovering from Wernicke's encephalopathy
TX: thiamine