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Flashcards in Superficial Back Deck (43):
1

Surface Anatomy

External occipital protuberance
Spinous process of C7
T1
Spine of scapula
Sacrum
Iliac crest
Inferior angle of scapula
Latissimus dorsi, trees major, trapezius

2

Skin Innervation

Dermatomes
- area of skin innervated by fibers from a single spinal nerve or segment
- dermatome maps used for sensory testing and surgical incisions

3

Superficial Fascia

Subcutaneous tissue (immediately below the skin)
Found between the skin and deep fascia
Covers most of the body
Storage area for body fat
Not well organized

4

Deep Fascia

Strong, dense, well organized layer of CT
Located deep to superficial fascia and contains no fat
Where muscle attaches to bone, deep fascia becomes continuous with periosteum
Helps form compartments in the body

5

Different layers of the deep fascia

Investing layer of the deep fascia - incests and covers deeper structures like muscles and neuromuscular bundles
Intermuscular Septa - separates muscles into groups
Retinaculum - thickening of deep fascia across tendons of muscles at joints

6

Superficial Back Muscles

AKA axioappendicular muscles or Extrinsic back muscles
Attach upper limb to axial skeleton
Trapezius
Latissimus Dorsi
Levator Scapulae
Rhomboid Major and Minor

7

Upper Limb muscles are supplied by...

Ventral primary rami

8

Intermediate Back Muscles

AKA Extrinsic back muscles
Serratus posterior superior
Serratus posterior inferior
Involved in act of respiration
innervated by ventral primary rami

9

Deep Back Muscles

AKA Intrinsic Back Muscles
Primary movers of the back
Innervated by the dorsal primary rami

10

Trapezius Info

Provides direct attachment of pectoral girdle to axial skeleton
Flat triangular muscle
Helps suspend the upper limb from the trunk
Covers back of neck and upper half of trunk
Attaches the pectoral girdle to the skull and vertebral column
Muscle fibers are divided into 3 parts

11

Trapezius Origin

Occipital bone
Ligamentum Nuchae
Spinous Process of C7-T12

12

Trapezius Insertion

Clavicle (lateral 1/3)
Acromion and spine of scapula

13

Trapezius Nerve Supply

Cranial nerve XI (accessory) - motor innervation
C3, C4 - central primary rami - pain and proprioception
Nerve injury would result in drooping of scapula

14

Trapezius Blood Supply

Superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery
Located on deep surface of the muscle

15

Trapezius Action

Holds upper limb to trunk
Adducts (retract) scapula
Raises scapula
Depreses scapula
Rotates scapula so that inferior angle is moved laterally for abduction of upper limb above horizontal position
To test its strength - shoulder shrugged against resistance

16

Latissimus Dorsi Info

Very broad flat muscle
Covers inferior half of the back (T6 to iliac crest)
Attaches the upper limb to the trunk
Acts on the shoulder joint

17

Latissimus Dorsi Origin

Spinous process of lower six thoracic vertebrae
Thoracolumbar fascia
Iliac crest and lower 3 or 4 ribs

18

Latissimus Dorsi Insertion

Humerus (intertubular groove) between Teres major and Pectorals Major

19

Latissimus Dorsi Nerve Supply

Thoracodorsal nerve (C6, C7, C8 level of spinal cord) from brachial plexus
If injured unable to raise the trunk with the upper limbs during climbing

20

Latissimus Dorsi Blood Supply

Thoracodorsal artery

21

Latissimus Dorsi Action

Pulls arm posteriorly (extends arm) and rotates medially
Used in chopping wood or crawl stroke in swimming
It adducts, extends and medially rotates the humerus at the shoulder joint
Along with pectorals major, it is an adductor of the arm

22

Triangle of Auscultation

Small triangular gap between muscles near the inferior angle of the scapula
Bounded by the trapezius, latissimus doors, and medial border of the scapula
Good place to listen for respiratory sounds because they will be less muffled

23

Levator Scapulae Info

Strap like muscle located in the neck and upper part of the thorax
Upper part lies deep to the sternocleidomastoid and the inferior part lies deep to the trapezius muscle

24

Levator Scapulae Origin

Transverse processes of the first three or four cervical vertebrae

25

Levator Scapulae Insertion

Superior angle of scapula and along its upper medial border

26

Levator Scapulae Blood Supply

Dorsal scapular artery (branch of axillary artery)
Deep ranch of transverse cervical artery

27

Levator Scapulae Nerve Supply

Dorsal scapular nerve (C5) and 3rd and 4th cervical nerves

28

Levator Scapulae Action

Elevates scapula
Rotates scapula to move the gleaned cavity and shoulder joint inferiorly

29

Rhomboid Major and Minor Info

One sheet of muscle, lies deep to trapezius
Upper part is called rhomboid minor
Lower, bigger part is rhomboid major

30

Rhomboid Major and Minor Origin

Spines of lower cervical (C7) and upper thoracic (T1-T5) vertebrae

31

Rhomboid Major and Minor Insertion

Medial border of scapula

32

Rhomboid Major and Minor Blood Supply

Dorsal scapular artery

33

Rhomboid Major and Minor Nerve Supply

Dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and some fibers from C4
Injury to scapular nerve results in inability to adduct the scapula

34

Rhomboid Major and Minor Action

Adduct scapula
Rotate scapular so the gleaned cavity moves inferiorly

35

Serratus Posterior Superior Info

Located deep to rhomboid muscles

36

Serratus Posterior Superior Origin

Ligamentum nuchae and spines of C7 to T3 vertebrae

37

Serratus Posterior Superior Insertion

2nd to 4th ribs

38

Serratus Posterior Superior Nerve Supply

First three thoracic spinal nerves

39

Serratus Posterior Superior Action

Elevated ribs

40

Serratus Posterior Inferior Origin

T11 to L2 of vertebral spines

41

Serratus Posterior Inferior Insertion

Lower four ribs

42

Serrratus Posterior Inferior Action

Aids in respiration by holding ribs steady when diaphragm moves up

43

Serratus Posterior Inferior Nerve Supply

Last four thoracic nerves