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Flashcards in Vertebral Column Deck (37):
1

Vertebral Column Info

Together with the sternum and ribs constitutes the skeleton of the trunk (axial skeleton)
The axial skeleton also includes the skull, hyoid bone, sternum, and ribs

2

Function of vertebral column

Posture and movements
Support and protection
Rib and muscle attachments

3

5 groups

Cervical C1-C7
Thoracic T1-T12
Lumbar L1-L5
Sacral S1-S5
Coccygeal Co1-Co4

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A typical vertebrae consists of...

Body
Vertebral Arch

5

Body

heavy heart shaped or oval anterior part
Missing in C1
Fused in sacral and coccygeal vertebrae
Get larger from C3 to S1

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Vertebral Arch

Posterior part of vertebrae
Attached to body; encloses the vertebral foramen
Protects the spinal cord and spinal nerves
Consists of:
Pedicles
Laminae
Spinous Process
Transverse Processes
Articular Processes

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Pedicles

2
Attached to body, continuous posteriorly with laminae
Contain the superior and inferior vertebral notches
Form intervertebral foramina with adjacent vertebrae

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Laminae

2
Thin plates
Continue posteriorly and join to each other
Give rise to the spinous process

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Spinous Process

1
Project posteriorly or posteroinferiorly
Serve for attachments of ligaments and muscles

10

Transverse Processes

2
Project laterally from junction of pedicles and laminae
Provide place for muscle and ligament attachments

11

Articular Processes

(zygaphphyses) arise from the junction of pedicles and laminae
2 superior - directed dorsally
2 inferior - directed ventrally, superior facet of one vertebrae articulates with the inferior facet of the one above to form the zygophyseal joint (joint between vertebrae)

12

Cervical Vertebrae

Typical are C3-C7
Atypical are C1 and C2
From skeleton of neck
Vertebral bodies are small
Transverse foramen C1-C6
Bifid spinous processes in C3-C5 are short
Vertebrae prominens (spine of C7)

13

C1

Atlas
Articulates with the skull superiorly
No body - during development its body becomes the dens of C2
Anterior arch - contains anterior tubercle
Posterior arch - contains posterior tubercle
Lateral masses contain superior and inferior articular facets
Transverse process contains the transverse foramen

14

C2

Axis
Dens articulates with the anterior arch of C1
Contains transverse process, a delicate spinous process, and a small body

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Vertebra Prominens

C7
Large spinous process similar to thoracic vertebrae
Transverse foramen may be absent
No costal facets

16

Thoracic Vertebrae

12
Costal facets and demarcates on the bodies for the heads of the ribs
Facets on the transverse processes for rib tubercles (T1-T10 only)
Spinous processes project posteroinferiorly - are long and overlap each other like shingles on the roof

17

Lumbar Vertebrae

5
Large bodies
No costal facets or demifacets
Spinous processes are short and stubby and project posteriorly
Mamillary process for attachment of muscles
Pars Interarticularis - region o flaming between the superior and inferior articular processes

18

Sacral Vertebrae

5 fused
Provides strength and stability to pelvis
Transmits weight of body to the pelvic girdle
Dorsal and ventral sacral foramina
Sacral promontory - body of S1
Median sacral crest - fused spinous processes
Lateral sacral crest - fused transverse processes
Sacral hiatus
Auricular surface

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Coccygeal

3 or 4 fused
Remnant of embryonic tail

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Normal Curvature - Primary

Kyphotic Curvature
Develop during fetal period
Thoracic - concave anteriorly
Sacral - concave anteriorly
Formed by differences in the thickness of the anterior and posterior regions of the vertebral bodies

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Normal Curvature - Secondary

Normal Lordosis
Not obvious until after birth
Cervical - convex anteriorly - develops when baby begins to lift head
Lumber - convex anteriorly - develops when the baby gets up on two feet
Formed by the differences in thickness of anterior and posterior parts of the intervertebral discs

22

Abnormal Curvatures - Kyphosis

Primary thoracic curvature may become exaggerated resulting in excess - hump back - often an age related problem

23

Abnormal Curvatures - Lordosis

Secondary curvature may become exaggerated resulting in abnormal lordosis due to muscle weakness
Scoliosis - lateral S shaped curvature
Spondylolisthesis - Anterior displacement of L5 vertebra on S1

24

Intervertebral Disc

Located between vertebral bodies
Missing between C1 and C2 and C1 and skull
Provide weight bearing and allow some movement between vertebrae
Two parts:
Annulus Fibrosus - Outer fibrous part
Nucleus Pulposus - middle gelatinous part that consists of notochord remnant

25

Ligaments

Intervertebral Disc
Anterior Longitudinal Ligament
Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
Interspinous and Supraspinous Ligaments
Intertransverse Ligament
Ligamentum Flavum

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Intervertebral Disc

IVD
Interposed between adjacent vertebrae
Contain the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus
No disc btw C1 and C2 and C1
Last disc btw L5 and S1

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Anterior Longitudinal Ligament

Covers the vertebral bodies and IVDs anteriorly
Extends from sacrum to the occipital bone of the skull
Function - Prevents hyperextension of the vertebral column and maintains stability of the intervertebral joints

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Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

Narrower, covers the posterior parts of the vertebral bodies and IVDs
Extends from sacrum to C2
Lies inside the vertebral canal
Function - Prevents hyperextension and prevents posterior displacement of IVDs

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Interspinous and Supraspinous Ligaments

Extend between spinous processes

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Intertransverse Ligament

Between transverse processes

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Ligamentum Flavum

Yellow colored ligament
Extends between laminae of adjacent vertebrae
Function - Maintain normal curvature of column, helps to straighten vertebral column for a flexed position

32

Vasculature of Vertebral Column

Vertebrae are supplied by equatorial and periosteal branches of the following arteries:
Vertebral
Posterior Intercostal
Lumbar
Spinal branches enter the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramen
Venous drainage is via internal and external venous plexus.
These plexus drain into the vertebral veins in the neck and segmental veins in the trunk

33

Joints of the Vertebral Column

Symphysis Joints
Zygapophyseal Joints
Craniovertebral Joints - Atlantooccipital joints and Atlantoaxial Joints

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Symphysis Joints

Between the bodies and IVDs

35

Zygapophyseal Joints

Facet Joints
Superior auricular facet of one vertebrae with the inferior auricular process of the vertebrae above
Plane type of synovial joint provide gliding movements

36

Atlantooccipital Joints

Articulation between the superior articular process of the lateral masses of C1 and the occipital condyles of the occipital bone of the skull
Ligaments - Tectorial membrane, Cruciate ligament, Alar ligament
Condyloid type of synovial joint
Permits flexion and extension (nodding) and some lateral flexion and rotation

37

Atlantoaxial Joint

Between lateral masses of C1 and C2
And between dens and anterior arch of C1
Allow head to turn from side to side - disapproval movement of the head