Indirect control over developing countries using economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. (an extension of dependency theory?)
What are the three distinct phases of the Empire?
The Mercantilist phase (1600-1850)
The Imperial phase (1850-1945)
The Decolonialisation phase (1945-?)
How many overseas territories does Britain still control?
What is the function of the World Bank?
To give advice, loans and grants for the reduction of poverty and the promotion of economic development
How does a superpower exercise its power militarily?
Access to nuclear weapons, ability to 'watch' the world using satellite and spy technology
E.g. USA, largest military budget in the world.
Nuclear Weapons= China, Russia, USA and UK...
What is the function of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)?
Trade policy, agreements and settling disputes. It promotes global free trade
How does a superpower exercise its power economically?
Wealth enables them to export their power around the world, buy resources and influence trade patterns.
E.g. USA largest GDP per capita. $53,000
What is the function of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)?
A military alliance between European countries and the USA. Recent new members include Poland
Give examples of a country that has been colonised by the British
India - South Africa -Australia -Nigeria -Sudan -Canada -Malaysia -Guinea -Falkland Islands
Name a country that has experienced Chinese 'neo-colonialism'?
Ghana -Sudan -Angola -Zimbabwe -Cameroon -Gabon -South Africa -Nigeria
What are the arguments for Chinese investment in Africa?
Building hospitals and schools -better than no investment -investment creates jobs -the real GDP of Sub- Saharan Africa increased by 4.4% between 2001-04.
What is colonialism?
The policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically
Why is there often conflict over territory after decolonialisation?
Colonial borders didn't reflect ethical and religious boundaries
What kind of superpower society was the British Empire?
Imperialist system. Its culture, economy and politics dominated other colonies
Why has the Davos Group been criticised?
Anti-globalisation campaigners say it creates inequality through capitalism. They also have no official status yet it is attended by presidents and prime ministers as well as Hollywood A-listers.
What is the function of G8 and who is a part of it?
To tackle global problems by discussing issues and planning what action Western democracies should take. It consists of the eight most powerful nations in the world: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the UK and the US
What is the function of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
To monitor the economic and financial development of countries and to lend money when countries are facing financial difficulties.
What is the function of the United Nations (UN)?
To prevent war and reach an agreement on international disputes. It has since developed a wide range of specialist agencies dealing with matters such as health and refugees.
What are the arguments against Chinese investment in Africa?
Poor workers rights --> Chambishi copper mine in Zambia. Workers only paid £53 per month -poor safety conditions --> Chambishi copper mine. 51 miners died in an explosion in 2005 -imported Chinese workers for infrastructure projects instead of African workers -imported Chinese doctors but didn't train African people -China has an unfair deal and receives more e.g. African raw materials
Name some of the most important raw material relationships between Africa and China
Iron and platinum from South Africa, Zimbabwe, DRC -Timber from South Africa, Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville and Cameroon -Oil from Angola, Nigeria, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville -Cotton from several countries in western central Africa. ---> 1/3 of Burkina Faso's exports, almost all cotton, go to China
Name a point of increased tension in the Cold War?
Korean War 1950-53
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
Why is it sometimes difficult for the UN to reach decisions?
The power of the veto vote allows permanent members (China, France, Russia, UK and USA) to block decisions. For example, the UN has not taken action in the Syrian Civil War due to Russia's allegiance with Syrian President Asaad.
Which are the potential new superpowers?
In the last 20 years new global power have emerged- the BRICS. The EU has expanded to include 27 nations, its power as a bloc has grown and there has been economic growth in the Gulf states. Economic growth in the emerging powers has had some obvious benefits: for example China has lifted some 200 million people out of poverty since 1990. In Brazil income growth has expanded the middle class and shrunk the number of people living in poverty.
What mechanisms allow developed countries to control parts of developing countries?
- Strategic alliances e.g. the USA and USSR formed alliances with many developing nations.
- Aid - can be given with strings attached forcing the recipients to spend the money the way the donor wishes e.g. tied aid and Pergau dam.
- TNCs and FDI
- Terms of trade- low raw material export price (developing world) vs high manufactured goods price (developed)
- Global finance and debt- developed countries put interest on developing world's debt.
- SAPs- structural adjustment programs e.g. SAPs in Haiti
Name an impact of new superpowers on energy resources?
The pressure on energy and other resources can be illustrated in car ownerships.
In 2003 13.6 out of every 1000 urban households in China had a car and the highest ownership was in Beijing (66 per 1,000). In the same year the car ownership rate in the USA was 750 per 1,000. If India and China achieve car ownership even half of those in the USA there will be double the current number of cars in the world.
What are the concerns that arise from the development of new superpowers?
Accelerating rise in demand for energy and other resources
impact on the environment- from global warming to localised pollution
The uneven distribution of the benefits in economic growth, with growing inequality between the urban rich and rural poor
Define the term superpower?
A nation with the ability to project its influence anywhere in the world and be a dominant global force
Define the term hyperpower?
An unchallenged superpower that is dominant in all aspects of power eg. USA
Define the term blue water navy?
One which can deploy into the open ocean with large ocean-going ships way beyond their territorial waters
Define the term diplomacy?
The negotiation and decision-making that takes place between nations as part of international relations
What is ideology?
A set of beliefs, values and opinions held by the majority of people in society eg. free spaeech, individual liberty or free market economics
What are geo-strategic policies?
Policies that attempt to meet the global and regional policy aims of a country by combining diplomacy with the movement and positioning of military assets
What was the Cold War?
A period of tension between ideologically rival superpowers; the capitalist USA and the communist USSR from 1945 - 1990
What is acculturation?
A process of cultural change that takes place when two different cultures meet and interact; it includes the transfer of a dominant culture's ideas on to a subordinate culture
What is sphere of influence?
The geographical area over which a powerful country can assert its authority
What is dependency?
In the context of economic development it means that the progress of a developing country is influenced by economic, cultural and political forces that are controlled by developed countries
What is free trade?
The exchange of goods and services free of import/export taxes and tarrifs or quotas on trade volume
What are IGOs?
Regional of global organisations whose members are nation states. They uphold treaties and international law and co-opertae on issues such as trade and economic policy
What is brand value or brand equity?
The value of a brand measured using metrics such as market share, customer opinion of the brand or brand loyalty
What are sanctions?
These can be diplomatic, such as dispelling foreign diplomats or economic such as banning trade between countries
What is nutrition transition?
A change in diet from staple carbohydrates towards protein (meat and fish), dairy products and fat. This is associated with rural to urban migration and eating more processed food
What are staple foods?
Carbohydrates relied on in large quantity and eaten regularly such as potatoes and wheat
What are rare earth minerals?
A group of metal elements crucial to modern communication, medical and laser technology. Found dispersed in rocks they are hard to mine, costly and in limited supply
What is an exclusive economic zone (EEZ)?
The area of ocean extending 200 nautical miles beyond the coastline over which a nation controls the sea and sub-sea resources
What was the Arab Spring?
A series of pro-democracy, pro-human rights civil uprisings in 2011 that affected Syria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Bahrain and Iran
What is Islamic State (IS)?
A jihadist terrorist organisation that rose to prominence in 2013 during the Syrian civil war, occupying parts of the Middle East and carrying out terrorist attacks worldwide
What is economic restructuring?
The shift from primary and secondary industry towards tertiary and quaternary industry as a result of deindustrialisation. It has large social and economic costs
What are the 5 pillars of superpower status?
Which factors are used to create a superpower index?
Total GDP (economic)
Total population (resources/demographic)
Nuclear warheads (military)
What is hard power?
Military action or conquest or the threat of it
The creation of alliances to marginilise some nations
The use of economic sanctions to damage a nation's economy
What is soft power?
The cultural attractiveness of some nations, making it more likely that others will follow their lead
The values and ideology of some nations being seen as appealing
The moral authority of a nation's foreign policy
Name some useful facts about the USA?
287 million population in 1989
Self-sufficient in most raw materials
Capitalist, free market economy
Leading role in NATO; ally of Japan and S. Korea
World's largest navy, nuclear weapons
Cultural influence in music, TV, film, music etc
Name some useful facts about the USSR?
291 million population in 1991
Self-sufficient in most raw materials
Communist, centally planned economy
Allies in Eastern Europe and Cuba
Large army, nuclear weapons
Cultural influence ballet and classical music
How would a unipolar world look?
A world dominated by one hyperpower. It's hegemonic position may be challenged by rogue states
How would a bipolar world look?
It could be stable as it is divided between two bocs. This stability depends on communication between the two blocs. If this breaks down there could be disastrous conflict
How would a multi-polar world look?
Numerous relationships between a range of equally powerful nations. Fears will exist over alliances creating powerful blocs leading to conflict.