Syllabus: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post-1945 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Syllabus: Religion and Belief Systems in Australia post-1945 Deck (23):
1

Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming:

KINSHIP

Integral to spirituality; refers to network of relationships holding clan together

Relationships establish/reinforce rules of community behaviour

Land important aspect of kinship; referred to as ‘my mother’

Kinship ties identify system of belonging and responsibility in a clan

2

Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming:

CEREMONIAL LIFE

Ancestors taught human descendants to live and how to keep life going through secret ceremonies

Dreaming and life giving powers live through humans/ animals after performing ceremonies

Rituals renew/conserve life→ everyone expected to understand sacred traditions

Art→ way of communicating the Dreaming through symbols, paintings, representations

Stories→ Describe law, lifestyle, customs/culture→ always messages of ethics

Totems→ Represent individuals as they existed in Dreaming, carry ceremonial responsibilities

3

Discuss how Aboriginal spirituality is determined by the Dreaming:

OBLIGATIONS TO LAND AND PEOPLE

Connection to land; responsibility to care and nurture land

Dreaming links person to land and objects within land

People share same spiritual essence as land

Land is physical medium through which the Dreaming is lived and communicated

4

Discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to:

SEPARATION FROM THE LAND

1770 Captain Cook declared Terra Nullius→ Aus belonged to no one; claimed Aboriginal laws had no legal status and entitlement to land denied

Aboriginal people removed from land (source of spirituality) → suffered malnutrition, disease, unable to find work, relied on govt

1830’s Protectorates established; reserved operated under white manager→ had power to expel people, hand out food, treat people as children

No hunting/gathering→ traditional way of life destroyed
Loss of land→ lives no meaning (dignity taken away)

Water/food sources lost→ had to trespass, hunt settlers stock→ led to violent confrontations

Displacement meant loss of cultural knowledge

Removal from land withdrew a person's place in the Dreaming and place of sport after death (Dreaming concept→ belief in return to spirit world after death)

5

Discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to:

SEPARATION FROM KINSHIP GROUPS

British view→ civilisation was superior→ would teach Aboriginals

Children lived in missions isolated from families→ carers tried to undermine culture by branding traditional beliefs as evil (stamping out ceremonies, rituals, languages)

Different language groups grouped together and sent away→ impacted on spirituality

Scale of separation; consequences for whole community→ distrust of govt, police and officials

6

Discuss the continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spiritualities in relation to:

THE STOLEN GENERATIONS

1915-1970 → Children removed from families by enforcement of govt policies

Chief protector; legal guardian of Aboriginal children; sent them to missions, schools etc

Boys exploited as cheap labour on reserves. Girls fell pregnant. ⅕ physically abused

1950-1960→ taken without parent’s knowledge or consent

Children told parents died or didn't want them→ moved from place to place, discriminated and bullied

Lost connection to dreaming, didn't feel as if belonged

Official policy until 1969→ impossible to know how many were taken (poor record keeping)

Effects today→ removed families likely to come to police attention, low self esteem,vulnerable to sexual/physical abuse, unable to retain links to land

Some fostered or adopted by white parents→ in new homes suffered abuse, poor food/living conditions, little education, banned from speaking native language

Main reason for policy→ assimilate children into “White Australia”

Lack of parental model→ many had difficulty bringing up own children

7

Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement:

NATIVE TITLE

NT: Recognition in Aus law; some Indigenous people continue to hold rights to lands/waters→ comes from traditional laws and customs

Exists when;
- Rights and interests under traditional laws currently observed and acknowledged
- Indigenous people have a connection with the area
- Rights and interests are recognised by common law of Aus
- Laws and customs acknowledged in mostly uninterrupted way from settlement to now

NT recognises validity of Aboriginal territorial laws existing prior to settlement

Native Title Act (1993) → Overturned terra nullius, gave official recognition to Indigenous way of life

8

Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement:

MABO

Eddie Mabo (Mer Islander) believed Aus laws on land ownership were wrong; fought to change them

Challenged Aus legal system for rights of Indigenous as traditional owners of their land

Mer Islanders decided they would challenge concept of Terra Nullius in High court (case ran for 10 years)

3 June 1992→ High Court decided terra nullius shouldn’t have been applied

High Court didn’t decide if NT could exist in land leased to pastoralists on long term (but didn't own)

Provided limited opportunities for small number of Indigenous people to claim ongoing existence of NT

Important→ land given back to Mabo’s people, land able to be claimed more easily, Terra Nullius overthrown

Recognises rights of Aboriginals to compensation, self determination,practice of their religion and protection of cultural identity

9

Outline the importance of the following for the Land Rights movement:

WIK

1996 Wik people of Cape York (QLD) → brought case to High Court arguing their right of NT on pastoral land

Ruled in their favour; decided NT rights and pastoralist rights could exist simultaneously

Great victory; even though pastoralists tights would generally prevail over Indigenous rights

Decision met with outcry so John Howard compromised and dramatically favoured rights of pastoralists (seen as act of racism)

Nonetheless it was incorporated into Native Title Amendment Act (1998) → bill increased state, territory govt powers over NT claims, while reducing rights of Aborigines to negotiate directly with pastoral leaseholders

10

KEY EVENTS IN THE LAND RIGHTS MOVEMENT

Movement in Aus; seeking to challenge Terra Nullius, identify Aboriginal connection/ ownership of land

1981→ Mabo fought to change Terra Nullius laws

1992→ High Court recognised Aboriginals hold to NT; provided limited opportunities to claim NT

1993→ Native Title Act; Overturned Terra Nullius; gave recognition to Indigenous way of life

1996→ Wik people argued right to NT on pastoral land→ decided NT rights could exist simultaneo

11

WHY LAND RIGHTS IS IMPORTANT

Reconises Aboriginal people are traditional custodians of land

Aboriginal people able to claim land more easily

Terra Nullius concept overthrown

Recognises right to compensation

Allowed to practice cultural identity and religion

12

Outline changing patterns of religious adherence from 1945 to the present using census data

1901; 96% of pop were Christian. → 2011; 61% of pop were Christian

1901; 0.4% of pop were no religion. → 2011; 37% of pop were no religion

1996; 1.1% of pop were Islamic. → 2011; 2.2% of pop were Islamic (growth rate of 70%)

1996-2006→
- Buddhism growth rate was 109%
- Hinduism growth rate was 120%

13

Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:

CHRISTIANITY AS THE MAJOR RELIGIOUS TRADITION

Though Aus is multi-faith society; main religious affiliation still strongly Christian

Roman Catholic and Anglican Church still hold dominant roles (Anglican ties to Britain weakened significantly)

After WW2→ Europe contributed many nationalities under Catholic banner

1975-1984→ Migration of Indo-Chinese refugees brought large Asian contingent to Catholic Church

Over 30 ethnic groups constitute the Catholic Church today in Aus

Pentecostal Churches shown significant growth→ popular with youth (use contemporary music, large stadium events, avoidance of formalised liturgy)

14

Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:

IMMIGRATION

Arrival of other religious traditions added to main religion; Christianity. But numbers were small and had little impact on overall religious landscape

Aus Muslim population is migrants from 35 countries; flee war etc

BUDDHISM
- Increase in Buddhists immigrating since suspension of “White Australia”policy (1960’s)
- 1973→ All barriers to non-Europeans were removed and Aus became attractive to Asian migrants
- 1981-1991→ Buddhism fastest growing religion in Aus

JUDAISM
- After WW2→ Jewish survivors moved to Israel or Aus
1945-1960→ Approx 30,000 Jews arrived from Europe,joining already established Jewish communities in Melbourne/ Sydney
- Contemporary Aus becoming diverse in religious composition
- Presence of synagogues, Buddhist and Hindu temples, mosques→ all changed Aus religious landscape (diminishing predominance of Christianity)

15

Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:

DENOMINATIONAL SWITCHING

Transfer of followers from one variant or denomination to another (usually in Protestantism)

Revolving door syndrome; moving from one to another

Feature of Christianity, but can occur across boundaries of any religious tradition

Enables person to find spiritual ‘home’ where they feel more at ease with style of worship and views put forwards by ministers in parish

16

Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:

RISE OF NEW AGE RELIGION

Rise of individualism; general trend of moving from traditional religions and their rigidity to seek spiritual fulfilment elsewhere

NAR→ “Loosely structured network of individuals holding new visions of enlightenment and harmony while subscribing to a common worldview.” RON RHODES

Tend to see reality as interrelated and interdependent; spirituality is multifaceted→ altered states of consciousness, reincarnation, spiritualism etc

E.g. Tarot cards, yoga, tai chi, Wicca, paganism
Creation centred; seeking guidance and answers

17

Account for the present religious landscape in Australia in relation to:

SECULARISM

General trend in modern society to replace religious belief with other kinds of activity drawn from secular disciplines of sociology, psychology, science

When religious perspectives abandoned in favour of non-religious response to life's questions

Some see it as an attempt to abandon attitudes that instil guilt in individual, or as an option that excludes any form of religious adherence

Religious values are declining; replaced by materialism, individualism

Increase in ‘no religion” in census figures

18

Describe the impact of Christian ecumencil movements in Australia

Ecumenism→ Christian unity among differing branches of religious community; movement towards unity amongst Christian churches

Positive call to unity and peace; successful in aiding social justice matters (e.g. refugee works)

Brings churches together; provides more opportunities help others; more work can be done

Larger number of provisions and resources utilised to help marginalised

19

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES

Formed 1994, has 17 member churches (E.g. Salvation Army, Greek Orthodox Church)

Social justice programs: Act for Peace→ Brings refugees into society, provides aid

Calls churches together to help people in need, provides opportunity for unity in faith

20

NSW ECUMENICAL COUNCIL

Formed 1982, has 15 member churches (E.g. Salvation Army, Greek Orthodox Church)

Involved in helping with homelessness, educating asylum seekers

Identify need for peace and for everyone to give to community

21

Evaluate the importance of interfaith dialogue in multifaith Australia

Interfaith dialogue: Cooperation between people of different faiths; create respect and appreciation for religious diversity

Promote mutual understanding, harmony, cooperation, interfaith prayer services

Promotes peace,unity between all people and strengthens relations

Important during times of crisis; helps maintain peace and stops disharmony

E.g. Parramatta shooting of police officer; interfaith communications between mosque and Church to stop people protesting and vandalising mosque, and to establish cooperation with police

22

Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation

Reconciliation: Process where Aboriginal and non indigenous citizens to move into future with new relationship based on mutual recognition, understanding and respect

Mistakes and injustices in past must be fully acknowledged and dealt with so everyone lives in harmony (e.g. dispossession of land, stolen generations)

To facilitate healing of spirituality and of Aboriginal condition→ many religious groups support reconciliation and need for formal apology

Church historically helped with destructive govt policies; now advocate for interfaith support in reconciliation

23

Examine the relationship between Aboriginal spiritualities and religious traditions in the process of Reconciliation

EXAMPLES

CHRISTIANITY:
- Caritas→ calls for more assistance to Indigenous people due to ongoing traumatic effects of Assimilation
Roman Catholic Church involved National
- Reconciliation Week→ week of initiatives promoting reconciliation, focuses largely on Aboriginal health

ISLAM:
Islamic groups make public statements supporting reconciliation and formal apology for stolen generations

BUDDHISM:
- Peace fellowship runs programs for social welfare and education
- Run a program for alcoholic Aboriginals; combines alcoholic anonymous process with Buddhist beliefs