Flashcards in Systematic Desensitisation Deck (25):
What are the main componants?
How is counterconditioning used?
Client is taught relaxation techniques which counteract the phobia so teach a new association
What kind of conditioning is used?
How does the desentitisation higherarchy work?
Steps are constructed with each causing more fear
Move onto next step when relaxed
What are the different forms of SD?
What is in vivo SD?
The client confronts their phobia directly
What is in vitro SD?
The client imagines the presence of their phobia
How is modelling used?
The client watches someone else interact with the phobia
Are in vivo or in vitro techniques more effective?
Who found that in vivo techniques were more effective than in vitro?
Menzies and Clark
What points can be made about effectiveness?
Not appropriate for all phobias
What is supporting research for effectiveness?
Capafons: Clients had less fear in a flight simulator after 12-25 weeks of in vivo and in vitro treatment
How long was the treatment period in the Capafons study? (Research supporting effectiveness)
How is it not appropriate for all phobias?
Not effective with generalised or ancient fears. Seligman says people are programmed to quickly make associations with life-threatening things from our past
What is biological prepardness?
People are less likely to get phobias of modern objects as they were not a threat in the EEA. Fear more readily associated with living animals which is supported by Bregman
What is the research support biological prepardness
Bregman failed to condition fear of wooden blocks by pairing it with a loud bell
Who came up with biological prepardness?
How can phobias be symptom submission?
Problems in other areas of life manifest as phobias so by treating the phobia you don't treat the realy cause.
What is an example of symptom submission?
Freud found a boy who was scared of horses. When the boy accepted the jealousy he had for his dad, the phobia went away.
What are the ethical issues?
Anxiety is controlled
How is anxiety controlled?
The client doesn't move onto the next stage until they are completely comfortable. They are taught relaxation which counteracts the anxiety.
Why is valid consent not an issue?
Most clients are mentally healthy and in touch with reality enough to give valid consent and understnad their right to withdraw. They are normally there of their own free will.
What assumptions can be applied?
All behaviour is learnt
How can the assumption that all behaviour is learnt be applied to SD?
We gain phobias through faulty learning so we can re-learn healthy ways of responding to the stimulus.