Flashcards in Watson and Rayner Deck (40):
What was the methodology?
One participant, 9 month old male baby
Not a case study as it only focused on the response to the stimulus and not other aspects of his life
Not an experiment as only one condition measured
Why was the study not an experiment?
only one condition measured
Why was the study not a case study?
only focused on the response to the stimulus and not other aspects of his life
How many sessions were there?
5 + emotional tests
What was the procedure of the emotional tests?
Shown objects and his response noted
White rat, rabbit, dog, wool, newspapers
Steel bar struck with hammer close to his head
How old was Albert during the first session?
11 months and 3 days
What was the purpose of the first session?
To establish a conditioned emotional response
What was the procedure of the first session?
Presented with the rat, when Albert reached for it, the bar was struck behind his head
How old was Albert during the second session?
11 months and 10 days
What was the purpose of the second session?
Testing the conditioned emotional response
What was the procedure of the second session?
Given the rat but no sound was made
5 counts of joint stimulation
What was joint stimulation?
When Albert was shown the rat at the same time that the bar was struck behind his head
How old was Albert during the third session?
11 months and 15 days
What was the purpose of the third session?
To see if the response was generalised to similar stimuli
What was the procedure of the third session?
He was presented with objects his response noted
Fur coat, dog, rabbit, wooden blocks
What was the purpose of showing him wooden blocks?
They were a control stimuli to make sure his response was just to the objects and not his general emotional state
How old was Albert during the fourth session?
11 months and 20 days
What was the purpse of the fourth session?
To see the effects of changing the environment
What was the procedure of the fourth session?
Given more joint stimulation and taken to a well lit lecture theature with 4 other people present and sat on a table in the centre of the room before being shown stimuli
How old was Albert during the last session?
12 months and 21 days
What was the purpose of the last session?
To measure the effects of time
What was the procedure of the last session?
Returned to the lab and shown stimuli
rat, mask, rabbit and dog
What were the findings of the emotional tests?
No fear response to objects before conditioning
First time bar was struck: startled, raised arms and rapid breathing
Second time: Tremble
Third time: Crying
What were the findings of the first session?
When bar was struck he fell forward but did not cry. The second time he fell forward and whimpered
What were the findings of the second session?
He just stared at the rat
When he reached for it, the rat started to nuzzle and be pulled away
In joint stimulation he became more and more distressed and tried to crawl away
What were the findings of the third session?
He played with blocks happily but was fearful of the rat
Scared of the rabbit but not as much
Not reallly scared of dog or coat
No fear response with Watson's hair
Cautious of cotton wool
What were the findings of the fourth session?
Less extreme but after joint stimulation it became more severe
Positive reaction to woodel blocks
What were the findings of the fifth session?
What are the conclusions of the study?
Easy to make fear response
Generalise to similar objects
Phobias are aquired this way
Freud was wrong about sucking thunb
What evaluative points can be made about the methodology and procedures?
How did Watson and Rayner ensure it was a controlled study?
Baseline condition of his reactions before conditioning
Wooden blocks acted as a control condition to ensure his behaviour was only to fluffy animals
How was the sample in the study a negative point?
Stable so can't generalise to unstable children
Impossible to know if it was unique reactions
What points can be made when evaluating the findings and conclusions? (Alternative evidence)
Two process theory
Learning is not the only explanation
What is the two process theory?
Classical conditioning explains how they are aquired
Operant conditioning explains how they persist as avoidance of the phobia is negative reinforcement
Who came up with the two process theory?
How is learning not the only explanation for aquiring phobias?
Ozt: Traumatic events may have occured that have been forgotten
Seligman: Biological prepardness where we are genetically programmed to make rapid reponses to certain stimuli and fear
What are the ethical issues and social implications?
Why is the fact that they created fear an ethical issue?
Unsure if it was excessive
Left a week between sessions not to traumatize him which shows they were aware
Why is psychological harm an ethical issue?
They stopped him sucking his thumb which made his experiance worse and made it more likely that he would suffer harm.