T2-Complications of Diabetes Concept Map Flashcards Preview

Melissa's Pharm 2 > T2-Complications of Diabetes Concept Map > Flashcards

Flashcards in T2-Complications of Diabetes Concept Map Deck (24):
1

What are the two short-term effects of diabetes?

Hyperglycemia
Hypoglycemia

2

Short term: Hyperglycemia
What can this lead to?

Ketoacidosis
Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)

3

What are the 2 long-term effects of diabetes?

Macrovascular damage
Microvascular damage

4

What are the 3 macrovascular damages?

Heart disease, stroke, hypertension

5

What are the 6 microvascular damages?

Retinopathy
Nephropathy
Sensory and motor neuropathy
Autonomic neuropathy (gastroparesis)
Infection and amputation
Erectile dysfunction

6

What is gastroparesis?

Food sits in stomach too long--can cause acid reflux and N/V

7

What is the number one cause of blindness in the US?

Diabetes

8

What are the 4 reasons for amputations because of diabetes?

1. Increase glucose (food for bacteria)
2. Decrease pain response (don't know they are infected)
3. Suppresses immune system
4. Decrease blood flow

9

More than 90% of deaths with diabetes result form ____ complications

Long-term

10

Microvascular injury is directly related to the degree and duration of ____

Hyperglycemia

11

What is retinopathy?

Blindness

12

Visual looses most commonly damage to the retinal ____

Capillaries

13

What is retinopathy accelerated by?

Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking

14

How often should a patient with diabetes get a comprehensive eye exam?

1-2 years

15

What is nephropathy?

Diabetic damage to the kidneys characterized by proteinuria (reduced GFR, increased BP)

16

Risk of nephropathy is __ higher in type 1 patients than type 2.

12x

17

What is sensory and motor neuropathy?

Nerve degeneration

18

What does a complete foot exam for diabetic patients include?

Looking for sores, infections, and checking sensory responses

19

Nerve damage is directly related to _____

Sustained HYPERglycemia

20

What is autonomic neuropathy?

Gastroparesis (delayed stomach emptying)

21

What is the underlying cause to amputations secondary to infection?

Severe infections

22

Why does severe infections happen in diabetic patients?

-Hyperglycemia= glucose rich environment for bacteria to grow
-Diabetes can suppress immune function, and compromise host defenses against infection
-Diabetic NEUROPATHY can prevent the patient from feeling discomfort and other sensations that would signal a serious infection is developing

23

Why do diabetic patients get erectile dysfunction?

Combo of blood vessel injury and neuropathy

24

Macrovascular complications result from a combination of _____ and _____

HYPERglycemia and altered lipid metabolism