T3-Blueprint: The Aging Individual Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in T3-Blueprint: The Aging Individual Deck (54):
1

What is Eriksons developmental theory for the aging individual?

Integrity vs. despair

2

The primary task of old age is being able to see one's life as having been lived with _____. In the absence of achieving that sense of having lived well, the older adult is at risk for becoming preoccupied with feelings of ___ or ____

Integrity; regret or despair

3

What is the purpose of reminiscence of life review?

To understand and make peach with certain memories, to recall happy times, to identify the goodness of ones' life, to build self esteem

4

What does Maslow's Hierarchy of needs do?

-A guide to understand human needs and motivation
-A guide to priortize nursing interventions to promote healthy aging
-High level needs cannot be met w/o first meeting lower level needs

5

What theory of aging is this?

Body wears out on a scheduled basis (think organ repair and efficiency)

Wear-and-tear theory

(biological theory)

6

What theory of aging is this?

Age related decline in the immune system. As people age their ability to defend against foreign organisms decreases

Immunity theory

(biological theory)

7

What theory of aging is this?

Aging is an involuntary inherited process. Lifespan and longevity changes are predetermined

Genetic theory

(biological theory)

8

What theory of aging is this?

Factors in the environment (trauma, carcinogens, coal miners and black lung disease, sunlight, infection) bring about changes in the again process.

Environmental theory

(biological theory)

9

What theory of aging is this?

Aging occurs because of a slowing of the secretion of certain hormones that have an impact on reactions regulated by the nervous system

Neuroendocrine theory

*most clearly demonstrated in the pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenals, and glands of reproduction

(biological theory)

10

What theory of aging is this?

Address aspects of psychological growth without delineating specific tasks or expectations of older adults

Personality theory

(psychosocial theory)

11

What theory of aging is this?

Developmental tasks that one must accomplish at specific stages in life to achieve successful aging

Developmental task theory

(psychosocial theory)

12

What theory of aging is this?

Social integration is the prime factor in determining psychosocial adaptation later in life. Social integration refers to how the aging individual is included and takes part in the life and activities of his/her society

Activity theory

to age successfully is to stay active!!

(psychosocial theory)

13

What theory of aging is this?

Process of withdrawal of older adults from societal roles and responsibilities

Disengagement theory

(psychosocial theory)

14

What theory of aging is this?

A follow up of the disengagement and activity theories. Emphasizes the individuals previously established coping abilities and personal character traits as a basis for predicting how the person will adjust to the changes of aging.

Continuity theory aka the developmental theory

(psychosocial theory)

15

What psychosocial theory has the personality of older men?

Personality theory

16

What are the 5 personalities of older men?

1. Mature men
2. "Rocking chair" personalities
3. Armored men
4. Angry men
5. Self haters

17

Personality theory: What personality of older men is this?

Passive dependent individuals who are content to lean on others for support, to disengage, and to let most of life's activities pass them by

"Rocking chair" personality

18

Personality theory: What personality of older men is this?

Bitter about life, themselves, and other people
-aggressiveness, suspicion of others (especially minorities or women)
-always have showed instability in work and personal lives--feels extremely threatened by old age

Angry men

19

Personality theory: What personality of older men is this?

Well balanced persons who maintain close personal relationships

Mature men

20

Personality theory: What personality of older men is this?

Well integrated defense mechanisms, which serve as adequate protection; rigid and stable

Armored men

21

Personality theory: What personality of older men is this?

Similar to angry men except most of the animists is turned inward on themselves; seeing themselves as dismal failures, being old only depresses them all the more

Self haters

22

What personality of old men accepts both strengths and weakness of their age, finding little regret about retirement and approaching most problems in a relaxed manner?

Mature men

23

What personality of old men has a strong silent front and often rely on a activity as an expression of the continuing independence

Armored men

24

What is the difference in angry men and self haters?

Self haters have their animosity turned inward on themselves. Think they are failures

Angry men are aggressive and suspicious of women and minorities

25

What personality is extremely threatened by old age?

Angry men

26

What are 3 things that promote aging well?

1. Avoiding disease and disability
2. Maintaining mental an physical function
3. Continuing engagement with life

27

Risks for cognitive decline...What are 5 risks?

1. Reduced efficiency of nerve transmission--> response time and coordination affected

2. Decrease in neurotransmitters

3. Reduced brain weight due to loss of neurons
-10% loss in brain weight by 90y

4. Cerebral blood flow reduced 20%

5. Some changes in brain structures with aging
-Atrophy in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes
-Widening of sulci
-Ventricular enlargement

28

Cognitive functions that change with age:
What begins to shrink?

Brain (atrophy)

29

Cognitive functions that change with age:
What declines: fluid or crystalized intelligence?

Fluid!---Emotion, creative capability, spatial perceptions, esthetic

30

Cognitive functions that change with age:
____ response/reaction time to questions or danger

Slower

31

Cognitive functions that change with age:
How are the reflexes?

Slower

32

Cognitive functions that change with age:
How is sleep?

Brain affects the sleep wake cycle, so brain is changing, so changes in sleep pattern occur---more frequent wakening

33

Cognitive functions that change with age:
What senses may go?

Loss in smell and taste

34

Cognitive functions that change with age:
Are there changes in gait?

Yes

35

Cognitive functions that change with age:
How is their problem solving ability?

That declines

36

Cognitive functions that change with age:
How is their memory?

-Longer time required for scanning of long and short term memory
-May not lay down new memories if fatigued, stressed, ill, or upset

37

Cognitive functions we DO NOT lose with age:

Basic intelligence remains. What does this mean?

Math and verbal reasoning unchanged

38

Cognitive functions we DO NOT lose with age:

What remains: fluid or crystalized intelligence?

Crystalized remains!! --Past learning, skills and experiences, verbal fluency, numerical ability, abstract thinking

39

Cognitive functions we DO NOT lose with age:

Social skills remain unless a ____ occurs

NCD

40

Cognitive functions we DO NOT lose with age:

If you are an artist, what is good about this as you age?

Your creative ability remains

*this is true of any person--creativity remains, just used artist as example bc that was ex from our blueprint

41

Cognitive functions we DO NOT lose with age:

__ remains but time to ___ is longer

IQ remains but time to LEARN is longer

42

Cognitive functions we DO NOT lose with age:

Does the learning ability diminish?

No, but it takes longer to process information

43

How can we preserve cognitive health/robust brain?

Education is protective---well educated mentally active people do not experience the cognitive decline as those who are not mentally active

44

Pain is expected with aging..Explain this

This is a myth--pain is not normal--the presence of pain indicates a medical issue that must be investigated

45

If the patient does not complain of pain, they must not be in much pain..Explain this

This is a myth--Older persons may not report pain for a variety of reasons like fearing the meaning of pain, diagnosis, or treatment

*they may think pain is normal--different cultures present pain differently

46

What are risks for developing depression?

-Physical illnesses
-Functional disability
-Cognitive impairment
-Loss of a spouse
-WHITE MALES (suicide risk)

47

____ symptoms are common in the depressed elderly. Symptomatology often mimics that of NCD (pseudo dementia)

Somatic symptoms

48

Why is suicide prevalent in the depressed aging adult?

Due to declining health
Decreased economic status

49

What are interventions to life depression?

Treatment of depression in the elderly individual is with psychotropic meds or ECT

50

What is strongly co-morbid with depression?

GAD

51

GAD is strongly co-morbid with depression because the ANS is more ____ in older persons, the response to a major stressor is quite ___

Fragile; intense

52

GAD is strongly comorbid with depression..The presence of _____ frequently compounds the situation, resulting in a more severe post-traumatic stress response than is commonly observed in younger persons

Physical disability

53

GAD is strongly co-morbid with depression. In older adults, symptoms of ___ and ____ often accompany each other, making it difficulty to determine which disorder is dominant

Anxiety and depression

54

How does anxiety usually present in the older adult?

Physical symptoms: fatigue, trembling, muscle tension, headache, nausea

Also...

-Chronic, exaggerated worry about everyday routine life events and activities, lasting at least SIX MONTHS
-Almost always anticipating the worst even though there is littler reason to expect it