Flashcards in T1-Different Theorists Deck (13):
The combination of character, behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental traits that are unique to each specific individual
Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to and thinking about environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts
Inborn characteristics of the personality that influence perception, reasoning, and behavior and personality development
Proposed that early development was critical to personality development and that fixation at one of the 5 stages of his psychosexual theory of development would present as prickly, and or dependent, and or addictive personality or as a personality disorder as the individual matured
Speaks to anxiety and the behaviors and relationships that provide relief from anxiety as well as the development of a sense of self identity and personality, from birth-21 years. He believed that the personality was the culmination of many interpersonal relationships, good and bad, therapeutic and non-therapeutic, healthy and unhealthy
Sullivan--Interpersonal Theory with Stages of Personality Development
He proposed that an individual would get stuck in an emotional/intellectual developmental stage if the tasks for that stage were not successfully mastered (even though physically they continued to mature). This individual will then perceive and emotionally and intellectually react to their worldview and stressful situations through the lens of that developmental stage.
Erikson--Eight life stages with developmental tasks to master successfully within each life stage
She proposes that during the period between birth and thirty-six months the child moves toward understanding self as separate from the primary caregiver. However, the child still needs the primary caregiver to be available to meet emotional and physical needs for the child to develop a “sustained image” of a loving and enduring caregiver in the unconscious mind (vs abandoned or rejected or neglected). The child accepts (consolidates) perceptions of good and bad aspects of the primary caregiver. These memories/images (objects) have a strong influence on perceptions and behavior throughout a lifetime.
Manier--Theory of Object Relations
Through a series of stages of physical growth and development, human intelligence and cognitive development occurs related to the human being’s physical and psychological adaptation to their environment.
He also supports the notion that there occurs a sense of object permanence – the object can be remembered and known to exist even though it is not present – during the child’s maturation.
Piaget--Theory of Cognitive Development
Proposes moral development is learned through stages of growth and development with increasing understanding of reward and punishment, proceeding as one matures to a greater ability to understand and whose choices and behavior are guided by abstract concepts such as life, liberty, justice, confidentiality, altruism, and so on.
Some of us are further along on this moral continuum than others
Kohlberg--Theory of Moral Development
Proposes four stages of development each with developmental tasks to be mastered. Lack of mastery of any one or more of the developmental tasks presumes difficulty in relationships.
-Infancy: learning to count on others
-Toddlerhood: learning to delay satisfaction
-Early childhood: Identifying oneself
-Late childhood: Developing skills in participation
Peplau--Stages of Personality Development
Psychodynamic nursing – the two-way interpersonal involvement of the nursing with a client
Nursing roles are identified
Phases of the nurse-client relationship are identified
Peplau-A Nursing Model: A framework for psychodynamic nursing
Who is the father of psychoanalysis?