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Flashcards in T3 monoclonal antibodies Deck (13)
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1
Q

what are monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)

A

antibodies that are clones from one parent cell

specific to one type of antigen

2
Q

describe how monoclonal antibodies are produced

A
  1. specific antigen injected into animal
  2. B-lymphocytes producing complementary antibodies extracted
  3. B-lymphocytes fuse with myeloma cells to form hybridoma cells - these cells can divide and produce antibody
  4. hybridoma cells cultured
  5. monoclonal antibodies collected and purified
3
Q

outline the uses of monoclonal antibodies

A

detection of pathogens

location of cancer cells and blood clots

treatment of cancer

used in pregnancy test kits

4
Q

what are myeloma cells

A

type of tumour cell

5
Q

what do pregnancy kits test for

A

hCG in urine

6
Q

what does a pregnancy test consist of

A

stick containing monoclonal antibodies specific to hCG:

mAbs attached to a blue bead (free to move)

mAbs fixed to the test stick

7
Q

describe what happens to the test stick if a woman is pregnant

A

hCG in urine binds to mAbs attached to a blue bead

mAbs with hCG diffuse up dipstick

mAbs fixed to the stick bind to hCG

blue line forms

8
Q

advantage of using monoclonal antibodies to test for pathogens

A

specific to one particular antigen

very accurate

quick results

9
Q

why can monoclonal antibodies be used to target cancer cells

A

cancer cells have specific antigens called “tumour markers” on their membranes

mAbs are specific to one type of antigen so can be targeted to tumour markers without damaging other cells

10
Q

describe how monoclonal antibodies can be used to diagnose cancer

A

mAbs tagged to a radioactive substance

mAbs injected into the patient’s bloodstream

mAbs bind to tumour markers on cancer cells

emitted radiation is detected using a specialised scanner enabling doctors to determine the location of cancer cells

11
Q

how can monoclonal antibodies be used to target drugs to cancer cells

A

mAbs attached to an anti-cancer drug

mAbs injected into the patient’s bloodstream

mAbs bind to tumour markers on cancer cells

anti-cancer drug destroys cancer cells

12
Q

why are cancer treatments that use monoclonal antibodies favoured over traditional treatments

A

radiotherapy and chemo target rapidly dividing cells

healthy cells are damaged as a consequence, producing unpleasant side effects

mAbs only target cancer cells, reducing damage to normal cells

13
Q

how can monoclonal antibodies be used to locate blood clots

A

mAbs tagged to a radioactive substance

mAbs target and bind to specific proteins in blood clots

radiation emitted by mAbs is detected, enabling the location of blood clots to be identified