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Flashcards in T4 respiration Deck (18)
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1
Q

what is aerobic respiration

A

exothermic reaction in which glucose reacts with oxygen to release energy which can be used by cells

2
Q

equations for aerobic respiration

A

glucose + oxygen > carbon dioxide + water (+energy)

C6H12O6 + 6O2 > 6CO2 + 6H2O (+energy)

3
Q

where does aerobic respiration take place

A

mitochondria

4
Q

why do organisms require the energy released by respiration

A

synthesis of larger molecules

muscle contraction

maintenance of body temperature

active transport

5
Q

what is anaerobic respiration

A

exothermic reaction in which glucose is broken down to release energy in the absence of oxygen

6
Q

equation for anaerobic respiration

A

glucose > lactic acid (+energy)

7
Q

why is anaerobic respiration less efficient than aerobic respiration

A

glucose is not completely broken down, so less energy is transferred

8
Q

why can anaerobic respiration lead to muscle fatigue

A

lactic acid builds up in muscles, preventing efficient contraction

9
Q

what is an oxygen debt

A

amount of oxygen needed to convert lactic acid back into glucose after anaerobic respiration

10
Q

what is fermentation

A

type of anaerobic respiration that occurs in yeast cells

11
Q

equation for fermentation

A

glucose > ethanol + carbon dioxide (+energy)

12
Q

why is the fermentation reaction important

A

used in the production of bread and alcoholic drinks

13
Q

differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

A

aerobic requires oxygen

aerobic produces CO2 and water, anaerobic produces lactic acid

aerobic transfers a greater amount of energy

14
Q

how do muscles store glucose

A

as glycogen

15
Q

what changes take place when muscular activity increases in the body

A

HR increases and arteries dilate - increases flow of oxygenated blood to muscles

BR increases and breathing is deeper - increases the rate of gaseous exchange

stored glycogen is converted back into glucose

16
Q

what is metabolism

A

sum of all the reactions that take place in a cell or an organism

17
Q

how do cells use the energy transferred by transpiration

A

continuously carry out enzyme-controlled processes which lead to the synthesis of new molecules

18
Q

give examples of metabolic reactions

A

glucose into starch/glycogen/cellulose

photosynthesis

respiration

breakdown of excess proteins into urea