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Flashcards in Task 9 Deck (36)
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How to asses job performance

o Use object records of productivity: e.g. counting the number of customers served by a cashier, or counterproductive cations such as being late
 May fail to encounter every aspect of job performance
o Supervisor/co-worker evaluation: widely applicable through jobs


Meta analytical findings

findings found through meta analysis are increasingly accepted (if applicated right) in the area of personnel selection


Impact of FFM on personality

o Can indicate job performance to a certain extent but is still influenced by other factors


Moderator effect

o Moderators: kind of job and work field and other situational factors
o FFM traits influence each other (e.g. extraversion is a good predictor if employee is also high in conscientiousness)


Mediator effects

o Effects of personality are only indirect over mediators on job performance (e.g. goal setting behaviours as mediator for conscientiousness)


What is tested in performance assessment

o Abilities: general abilities such as ability to learn new things (e.g. IQ tests)
o Motivation: refers to a persons values an drives (in absence of rewards or punishment)
o Preferences/personality: refers to favour certain activities over others


the role of conscientiousness

o Positively correlated with job performance (rather modest .20)
o Still best predictor for overall job performance
o Better predictor if employees perceived high levels of organizational politics but not with low levels



shows modest positive correlation with performance in customer service jobs, (interpersonal skills)
o Getting along with co-workers
o Low use of legitimisation or pressure


Extraversion and emotional stability

modest positive correlation with performance in sales and managerial jobs
o Extraversion related to showing leadership on the job and use of inspirational appeal and ingratiation
o Emotional stability related to better management of job stress, use of rational persuasion and low use of inspirational appeal


Honesty Humility

o Low levels predispose people to engage in counterproductive behaviour, triggered by the right situation (kind of job)


Openness to experience

o Low use of coalitions
o Greater creativity


Integrity test

self-report questionnaires that aim to asses an employees level of honesty and dependability (tendency for counterproductive behaviour) (correlation to job performance .15)
o Overt integrity test: ask the job applicant to indicate whether she/he has engaged in various dishonest acts
 Ask the applicant to indicate their attitudes and opinions about the acts
o Personality based test:
 Similar content to typical self-report personality inventories
 Are often obviously meant to assess socially desirable or undesirable characteristics (easy to cheat)



used in personality assessment despite the fact that is not a good predictor for job performance
o In general the quality and knowledge about the used test is low for personality assessment companies



o Based on structured and unstructured questionnaires, interviews or CVs
o Validity threatened by faking/dissimilation
 Impression management and social desirability


Observation data

o Based on others rating of this person
o Data sets differ depending on who is the observer (e.g. former Boss or a friend)
o Still can favour the potential employee because of a good relationship (focus on positive features)


Test performance

asses the maximum/typical performance of the applicant
o Often testers do not know about the quality and applicability of the psychometric properties of the tests
o Some abilities are not transferrable between jobs


Personal history

o Where they were born and educated, social status, coming from minority groups
o Tries to asses biographical markers of success in particular jobs
o Advantages:
 Objectivity
 Cheap
 Checkability (answers can be verified)
 Validity
 Self-presentation (more accepted by the applicant than personality test)
o Disadvantages:
 Cloning the past: hold the assumption that past behaviour is consistent with future behaviour
 Faking (checking for faking is extremely expensive)
 Fairness in the law, might enhance discrimination against e.g. age, sex and race
 Minorities can not be detected by computers and so can’t be treated fairly
 Biodata do not travel well (not the same predictability across jobs)
 Time consuming
 Predictability shrinks over time


A simple selection method

o Selectors have a list of competencies which they are looking for
o Problems:
 Assumption of linearity: the more is the better in every domain (e.g. IQ) but it is needed the optimal rather the maximal amount


Personality tests

o Success depends on the test and the sample
o Especially important conscientiousness and neuroticism (applicable to all jobs)
o Different jobs require different personality traits
 Successful managers have a clear profile: they tend to be low on neuroticism (i.e., very stable), low on agreeableness, average on openness, high on extraversion, and very high on conscientiousness
o Asses motivation/avoidance (effort and drive)
o Advantages
 Provides numeric results which are good for interpersonal comparisons
 Explicit and specific results
 Test are thought to be fair
 Comprehensive, asses all personality facets
 Scientifically proven
o Disadvantages:
 Can be influenced by momentary mood
 Faking is easy
 Some claim the absence of good norms for comparison (WEIRD)
 Interpretation of test is expensive


The problem of faking

o Also called response distortion
o Fairly strong degree of response distortion in job applicants
o Integrity test still can display relative levels of integrity and related traits


Effects of faking

o Highest rate for faking was for negative-keyed items to downplay undesirable characteristics
o Reduction in validity


Correcting for faking

o Including items where high scores may indicate dissimulation
o Use statistical mechanisms to correct faking (do not improve validity
o In general correcting is hard to use because different persons might fake different aspects so it is hard to find a global correction strategy)


Faking scales

questions about e.g. moral lapses that presumably everyone did, persons who indicate not performing are detect as liar
 Serious doubts about effectiveness


Other methods reducing faking

 Use of time limits on applicants responses
 Use items with equally un/desirable statements from which the applicant chooses which describes him best
 Non self-report measures (new focus in assessing job performance)


the faking warning

o Warning the test takers that the test includes faking detection and that there will be consequences
o May reduce faking by 30%
o Reduces motivation to fake
o Mostly effective if:
 Personality assessment takes place after resumes have been submitted (possibility of comparing)
 Some items of the questionnaire asses potentially observable manifestations of the trait


Faking detection

o Latency of the test-takers response might detect fakers
o Faking scales (combination with latency is most accurate)
o Item response theory (IRT): uses a mathematical model to describe the relationship between test-taker levels on the personality trait being measured and their probability of choosing the various response options of a given personality item (just a mathematical model to detect faking)
 Some aspects might be useful for faking detection


The forced choice method of personality assessment

o Presenting statements in groups that asses different traits, but have been equated with respect to perceived desirability level
o Participant has to indicate which one fits best and worst
o Theis counteracts desirability effect
o Reduces ability to fake


impression management

try to create good impression by leaving out or adding (untrue) information
o Conscious process



when people answer honestly but the content is untrue caused by a lack of self-awareness


Broad or narrower personality measure

o More broad measure is appropriate for predicting an equally broad measure of overall success at work
o More specific, lower facets of FFM my result in stronger correlation to more lower level criteria
o Different facets of a trait have different predictive value