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EXAM #4 (ad. antepartum) > teenager pregnancy > Flashcards

Flashcards in teenager pregnancy Deck (14):

teenager pregnancy outcome in U>S

1 in 4 teen pregnant :
51% live birth
35% induced abortion
14 % SAB or stillbirth
25% repeat pregnancies


demographic of teenager pregnancy

80% poverty
>50% low academic achievement


Early adolescent : 14 & under

very minimal ability to see herself in the future and connect current actions with future events and consequences
perceives lowcus of control as external: her destiny is controlled by others such as parents and school authorities
not uncommon for girls in this very yound age grup to be impregnated by adult males over age 18


middle adolescents: 15-17 years old

seeks independence from family and turns to peer group for identification
wants to be treated as adult however fear of adult responsibility will cause fluctuation in behavior
very challenging time for parents and families
beginning to move from concrete thinking to formal operation thought but wtill is not able to anticipate long term consequences of her present action
no conscious decision is made about being sexually active is common, and initial experieince of sex often is not planned
thinking "it won't happen to me" is common


late adolescence: 18-19

ability to think abstractly and anticipate consequences
capable of formal operation thought and can solve problem, conceptualize and more easily make decision
for this reason, may experts in adolescent pregnancy consider age 18-19 to be in the category of an adult.


influences on teen sexuality & pregnancy

hx child sexual abuse
lack of father in the home
older siblings
parents work full time minimal supervision
her mother was a teen parent


locus of control
--> external orientation

the forces that determine their life event are outside of their control, and that situations are guided by a sense of fate or luck


locus of control
--> internal orientation

feel the ability to bring about change and results in their own behavior
in late adolescence locus of control changes from external to internal. teens with future goals such as college or a job use birth control more consistently
higher sense of self-esteem--> stronger internal locus of control ability to withstand sexual pressures of peer behavior and boyfriend, and to use birth control methods
young teen girls are subject to massive media & peer images of ideal appearance self esteem already tenuous in adolescence , can negatively influence behavior and decision making.


influences on teen sexuality & pregnancy

cultures : media glamorize early & public sexuality
resources: poverty no access to birth control
physical maturity : occurs prior to cognitive maturity, attracts male attention before ability to understand how to deal with it.


pregnant teens & physical abuse

more common in pregnant adolescents than older pregnant women
screening should be done in private every trimester
age of consent, rape, legal issues


Pregnancy potential problems

late to prenatal care
2x rate of low birth weight & SGA infant
3x infant mortality
preterm labor
STD's especially Chlamydia
substance abuse (binge drinking)


Psychosocial potential problems due to teenage pregnancy

limited education
persistence of poverty
unstable family structure
poor parenting
repeat pregnancy


Midwifery care Issues

midwifery relationship : avenue for change
continuity of care important to teens to establish relationship
centering pregnancy : growth & empowerment
repeat pregnancy prevention: pregnant teens are very likely to have another pregnancy within 2 years studies show 40-45% repeat as teens !!!


teenage pregnancy & nutrition

poor diet : deficient in calcium iron regular meals
weight gain: body image issues adolescent obesity