Term 2 - Theme 2 (1) Flashcards Preview

Environment and Sustainability > Term 2 - Theme 2 (1) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Term 2 - Theme 2 (1) Deck (18)
Loading flashcards...
1

Human-Environment interactions

The environment as a resource e.g. agriculture. the environment as a sink e.g. sewage, industrial wastes. The environment as a hazard e.g. storms, pollutants etc.

2

'Natural' - Smith, 2013

Any natural process of phenomenon that may causes loss of life, injury or other health impact, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption or environmental damage'.

3

'Technological' - Smith, 2013

Hazards orginiating from technological or industrial corridors, including accidents, dangerous procedures or infrastructure fails that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or health impacts, property damage....

4

'Socio-natural'

e.g. floods linked to deforestation, agricultural practice.

5

'Na-Tech'

e.g. Fukushima.

6

Hazard

'a potential threat to humans and their welfare arising from a dangerous phenomenon or substance that may cause loss of life, injury, property damage and other losses or damage.

7

Risk

the combination of the probability of a hazardous event and its negative consequences.

8

Disaster

When large numbers of people are killed, injured or adversely affected, the event is termed a disaster. Can be described as a serious disruption to the functioning of a community or a society involving widespread humans, material, economic or environmental losses or impacts which exceed the ability of the affected community to cope. (UN/ISDR, 2009)

9

Pre 1950

Engineering - What are the causes for natural hazards and what protection can be provided. Scientific weather forecasting and large structures were built against natural hazards.

10

1950-70

Behavioural - Why do natural hazards cause death and economic damage and can changes in human behaviour minimize risk. Improved short-term and long term land planning so that humans can adapt.

11

1970-90

Development - Why do people in LDCs suffer so severely and what are the historical and socio-economic causes of this? Greater awareness of human vulnerability to disaster + an understanding of how low economic development contribute to disaster.

12

1990-

Complexity - How can disaster impacts be reduced in a sustainable way in the future. emphasis on the complicated interactions between natural and human systems, leading to improvement in the long-term management of hazards.

13

Are disasters 'natural'?

Access to the environment as a resource and sink, exposed to environmental hazards. Social differences - class, gender, ability, age, social capital, political context, race/ethnicity etc.

14

Vulnerability

The characteristics of a person or a group and their situation that influence their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard (Wissner et al 2003)).

15

Pressure Release (PAR) model - Root causes

Root causes - Political, social and economic factors which are spatially or temporarily distant, culturally and socially invisible.

16

PAR - Dynamic pressures

Examples include neo-liberal policy, urbanization, wars and conflict, development agendas, export-driven growth.

17

PAR - Unsafe conditions

Examples include hazardous locations, dangerous livelihoods, malnutrition, ill health etc.

18

PAR model by:

Wisner et al (2003)