Terminology and Overview of Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Terminology and Overview of Skeletal System Deck (45):
1

Median (Midsaggittal)

Left/Right

2

Sagittal

slides the median plane to the left or the right
could have infinite number of slices

3

Frontal AKA

Coronal
Front/Back cuts
could have infinite number of parallel planes

4

transverse AKA

Horizontal
Top and Bottom

5

axial skeleton

skull, vertebrae, ribs, and sternum

6

appendicular skeleton

limbs and the girdles (pelvis) *foundation of lower extremity

7

fossa

depression in bone

8

groove

depression in bone that accommodates a structure

9

Tubercle

rounded projection, usually blunt and irregular

10

articular facets

small, shallow depression, articulating with another bone

11

notch

deep indentation or narrow gap

12

foramen

hole for blood vessels and nerves to pass

13

skeletal articulations

or joints
how two bones come together

14

fibrous joints

suture, syndesmosis, gomphosis

15

cartilaginous or fibrocartilaginous joint

synchondrosis, symphysis

16

types of joints

fibrous
cartilaginous or fibrocartilaginous
synovial

17

suture

type of fibrous joint
example- bones in skull
held together by sharpey's fibers
some flexibility (small)

18

syndesmosis

fibrous joint
- sheet of fibrous tissue joining two bones
example - radius and ulna

19

gomphosis

type of fibrous joint
*teeth and alveolar bone
peg- like articulation
tooth in bone and held with fibrous- sharpey's fibers
pdl

20

synchondrosis
define primary

type of cartilaginous joint
see cartilage between - growth plate
growth plate will disappear
bone 1 and 2 joined by growth plate
primary = first time developing use the plate and plate/cartilage disappears
BONES UNITED BY HYALINE CARTILAGE
example- costochondral joints and sternocostal joint and xiphisternal joint

21

symphysis

type of cartilagenous joint
SECONDARY
BONES UNITED BY FIBROUS CARTILAGE - two bones with pad of fibrocartilage
example- manubriosternal joint
manubrium (superior part of the sternum)
ALSO THE PUBIC SYMPHYSIS

22

synovial joint

joint capsule of fibrous tissue
joint cavity enclosed by capsule
synovial membrane lining capsule
synovial fluid covereing joint surfaces
usually hyaline cartilage covering joint surfaces
LOOK AT PICTURE

23

types of synovial joints and their movements

plane (gliding) - no clear axis of motion
hinge (knee) and pivot(radius/ulna with humerus=elbow) - uniaxial, movement in one direction
condyloid (fingers) and saddle (thumb is example) - biaxial - two axis of movement
Ball and socket - triaxial = shoulder
- will then need three muscles because three separate movements

24

tendon

muscle to bone

25

ligament

bone to bone

26

hilton's law

blood supply and innervation to joint are from same blood vessels and nerves that supply the muscles around the joint
CRUCIAL IN PROPRIOCEPTION

27

extrinsic muscle

a muscle that has one attachment outside the region of interest

28

intrinsic muscle

begin in end in region itself

29

move head forward

flexion
so back = extension

30

palm facing up and move arm up

flexion
so back is extension

31

leg straight and move forward

flexion
so extension is leg moved back while straight

32

bending knee

bending knee back = flexion

33

palm not facing up and moving hand down

flexion

34

Rheumatoid Arthritis

inflammatory arthritis - autoimmune so see symmetry from right to left (like in hands)
symmetric
typical deformities
body attacking synovial joints

35

osteoarthritis

wear on joint surfaces- so breakdown of the synovial joints
may be unilateral
occurring more on weight-bearing joints

36

plane/ gliding is...
example?

synovial joint - no definite plane of motion - example is wrist - articulation is flat surface

37

hinge and pivot joints
example

synovial joint that move in one axis
hinge - knee or elbow which move in sagital plane - front and back
pivot = radius and ulna (rotary movement)

38

condyloid and saddle joint
examples

2 axial synovial joints
condyloid - fingers - movement is sagital and coronal(frontal) (front back and left right)
saddle- thumb

39

ball and socket

tri-axial
shoulder
movement in all planes
horizontal/transverse
frontal/coronal
sagital - left / right

40

plane/gliding joint

uniaxial - NO CLEAR AXIS OF ROTATION
flat articulating surfaces
example is wrist and intervertebral
type of synovial

41

HINGE joint

uniaxial
elbow and knee
knee is moving within the sagittal plane

42

pivot joint

uniaxial
radius and ulna with the humerus
synovial

43

condyloid

Bi-axial
in the fingers
movement can occur in two planes
finger is sagital and coronal plane

44

saddle joint

bi-axial
thumb

45

ball and socket

tri-axial like shoulder
three planes
sagital
frontal/coronal
transverse/horizontal = rotator