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Flashcards in Terminology Formation Deck (18):

bell hooks formation

Representation of black women in power positive as highlights inequality between women of different races
- mention Beyonce "not being black enough" still inequality
- "get in formation" and "I could get your song played on the radio station" shows power and fighting against the patriarchy - men very rarely featured.


Bounce formation

Includes footage from BEAT- documentary on bounce music. Strong links to New Orleans culture, especially black people.


Construct formation

Beyonce has constructed at least 8 personalities, convention of her music videos. Shown in various positions, each with different meanings e.g. slave owner, victim of Hurricane Katrina floods


Contrast and Conflict formation

Contrast between rich women in antebellum era sitting in comfortable house and drowning people from New Orleans: Race differences.
Difference between scenes choreographed intensely and sitting/resting scenes - highlights difference between classes?
Contrast between flooded land and dry swimming pool.
Think Claude Levi-Strauss and binary oppositions.


Costume formation

Costume used to construct her personalities: antebellum era highlights racial difference, women in wig shop in "shaggy" clothes. Colourful, carnival-esque outfit, modern rich outfits


Different genres formation

Some footage from the bounce genre, arguably not enough reference to gay rapper struggles to accurately portray bounce
Hip hop genre, pop (if anything because it was so popular)


Direct Address formation

lyrics like "your song played on the radio station" "okay ladies" talking to all women.


Equality formation

Links to bell hooks and inequality within the sex. Attempts to raise awareness on inequality both with women and poc


Finance and profit formation

was originally only released on Tidal, owned in part by Beyonce. Keeps profits going to her. Played at the Superbowl the next day, with 110 million viewers. Apparent difficulty to buy the music (non-presence on spotify) drew attention to it.
Her formation tour made over $250m


Global circulation formation

Superbowl reached 170 countries in 2016, global viewing of her music video.
On youtube and online, allows for people all over the world with internet access to buy it


Historical circumstances formation

In the wake of the slave culture in the 1800s "antebellum era". Black people still treated as less than white people - see Gilroy and post-colonialism. Shots of her daughter in an antebellum dress, and Beyonce as a slave owner.
In the wake of hurricane Katrina that hit New Orleans hard in 2005. Multiple shots of NO being flooded with water, actual footage of the floods included plus beyonce drowning.


Intertextual references formation

References to the B E A T documentary on the bounce genre.
References to the Black Panther party in costume worn at the Super Bowl.
Reference to Michael Jackson's appearance in costume at the Superbowl years before.
Reference to MLK in a newspaper held up in the video.


Jean Baudrillard formation

Postmodernism - "hyper reality" in which reality is replaced by simulacra (Representation of something becomes more important than "the real thing", simulation)
Beyonce is a celebrity who is at the point of fame she may be said to be cocooned in a hyper reality. No interactions can be held on a real level any more.



See van zoonen and the objectification of women's bodies: presented as a spectacle. Media reflects the dominant ideology, objectified as a result of a patriarchal society.
Arguably Beyonce is allowing herself to be objectified in an attempt to gain more money. Is this a statement of her own power and her own body or is this a submission to popular media?


Paul Gilroy formation

Post colonialism - black people / poc are seen as different and less than white people. Concepts of "otherness" make segregation more obvious. Creates an "us and them".
The lyric "get in formation" may indicate that it is time to band together and fight back about their rights and who they are as a race.


Performance formation

The video is a mixture of acting and dancing - she is often presented as being looked up to by men, an object of desire, powerful. Conflicting messages?
Carefully choreographed dance scenes shows a lot of skill.


Roland Barthes formation

Everything is a sign that has meaning.
See icons like antebellum dress, slave owner hat, various mise en scene like masks for a masquerade and the new orleans police car.


Stereotypes formation

Stereotypes mostly challenged as the cast is mostly women of colour, as opposed to white men in mainstream media.
Opposed as she is clearly in power and looked up to.
Stereotypes upheld with the women in the wig shops, but portrayed mostly positively either way
See Hall - best way to remove a negative stereotype is to go within it and to expose it from the inside