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Flashcards in Terminology of Neoplasms Deck (56)
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1

Our terminology evolved largely historically and still remains largely (blank).

descriptive

2

Are their exceptions to the descriptive rules?

yes

3

As we increase our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of cancer, molecular (blank) will supplement but not replace our descriptive terminology

mechanisms

4

Define what benign is classified as:

unrestrained growth
circumscribed borders
rarely kills host

5

Define what malignant is classified as:

unrestrained growth
invasion of surrounding tissues
metastasizes and eventually kills the host

6

What are these four properties of?
Uncontrolled growth
invasion and metastasis
clonal dominance
loss of differentiation

properties of cancer

7

What does clonal dominance mean?

derived from common ancestor cell

8

What happens in intraductal hyperplasia?

Eptihelial cells start to proliferate

9

What happens in intraductal hyperplasia with atypia?

They become a little atypical

10

What happens in intraductal carcinoma in situ?

the atypical cells are limited by surrounding baasement membrane

11

What happens in invasive ductal cancer and how long does it take the cancer to get to this point?

the cancer starts to break out and invade. May take 12-15 years

12

What does this define:
active migration of neoplastic cells out of their tissue of origin and across host tissue boundaries.

Cancer Invasion

13

Cancer cells have a lot of obstacles to become metastatic, what are they?

break through basement membrane and collegen, dodge the immune system and dive into a lymphatic vessel or blood vessel

14

Swelling or mass; nonspecific suffix "__oma"

tumor

15

New growth

neoplasia

16

Greek word Onkos=mass, bulk

oncology

17

crab like appearance

cancer

18

Mesenchymal origin, "____oma"

benign

19

mesenchymal origin, "___sarcoma"

malignant

20

Epithelial origin, "_____adenoma"

benign

21

epithelial origin, "____carcinoma"

malignant

22

A histological or cytological event non-conforming to an established type. In the cancer cell it concerns: the nucleus, cytoplasm, and shape

atypia

23

A reversible histological event in which one adult cell type is changed into another adult cell type (vitamin A deficiency, chronic irritation, chronic infections)

metaplasia

24

Will you see malignant cancer more often in epithelial origin or mesenchymal origin?

epithelial

25

What does this define:
a secondary tumor colony discontinuous from the primary tumor AND arising from a tumor cell translocated from the primary tumor.

Metastasis

26

What are the 3 modes of metastasis?

through lymphatics, blood vessels, and pleural of long body cavities

27

what is this the definition of:
abnormal mass of tissue with excessive and uncontrolled growth "transformed"

neoplasm

28

What is this the definition of:
Abnormal growth of tissue

tumor

29

What is the general term for malignant neoplasm?

Cancer

30

What are the two categories of neoplasia?

benign and malignant

31

What can involve adjacent tissue but cannot metastasize? What is able to invade and damage adjacent tissue and metastasize?

Benign, Malignant

32

What are the two components of neoplasia?

transformed (neoplastic) and non transformed (supporting stroma)

33

Papilloma, papillary, polyp, pedunculated, sessile invasive or encapsulated are all descriptive terms used with (blank).

tumors

34

what is a small wartlike growth on the skin or on a mucous membrane, derived from the epidermis and usually benign.

papilloma

35

What is a small rounded protuberance on a part or organ of the body, nipple-like

papillary

36

What is a small growth, typically benign and with a stalk, protruding from a mucous membrane.

polyp

37

What does it mean when something looks if it has a long stalk, polyps are considered this.

pendunculated

38

What does it mean when something is attached directly by the base : not raised upon a stalk or peduncle,permanently attached, immobile

sessile

39

What is it called when something tends to spread prolifically and undesirably or harmfully.

invasive

40

What is it called when something is in a capsule or surrounded by a gelatinous or membranous envelope?

encapsulated

41

what can be benign or malignant and is derived from one or more germ layers?

mixed mesenchymal/epithelial tumors

42

What are these categorized as:
Squamous cell papilloma
adenoma
cystadenoma
liver cell adenoma
renal tubular adenoma
transitional cell papilloma

benign epithelial neoplasms

43

What are these categorized as:
Squamous cell carcinoma
adenocarcinoma
cystadenocarcinoma
hepatocellular carcinoma
renal cell carcinoma
papillary transitional cell carcinoma

Malignant epithelial neoplasms

44

What are these categorized as:
fibroma
osteoma
chondroma
lipoma
leiomyoma
rhabdomyoma
hemangioma

benign mesenchymal neoplasms

45

What are these categorized as:
fibrosarcoma
osteosarcoma
chondrosarcoma
liposarcoma
leiomyosarcoma
rhabdomyosarcoma
hemangiosarcoma

malignant mesenchymal neoplasms

46

What are these categorized as:
pleomorphic adenoma
ibroadenoma
mature teratoma/ dermoid cyst

benign mixed tumors

47

What are these categorized as:
malignant mixed tumor of salivary gland
malignant cystosarcoma phyllodes
immature teratoma, teratocarcinoma

Malignant mixed tumors

48

Are these malignant, or benign? Why?
hepatoma, lymphoma, melanoma, mesothelioma, seminoma

these are malignant; they are an exception to the rule

49

What is this?
hamartoma- disorganized overgrowth of normal tissue, it grows at the same rate as the surrounding tissues. It is composed of tissue elements normally found at that site, but which are growing in a disorganized mass. They occur in many different parts of the body and are most often asymptomatic and undetected unless seen on an image taken for another reason.
choristoma- ectopic mass of tissue abnormal for site

A benign non-neoplastic growth. NOT A neoplasm, because"The growth of neoplastic cells exceeds and is not coordinated with that of the normal tissues around it."

50

Neoplasm of bone marrow origin has what suffix?

__emia i.e. leukemia

51

Neoplasm of embryonic origin has what suffix?

__blastoma.. i.e neuroblastoma

52

What is hodgkin's disease?

lymphoma

53

What is Ewing's sarcoma?

sarcoma of bone

54

What is Kaposi's sarcoma?

hemangiosarcoma

55

What is Krukenberg's tumor?

metastases to ovaries

56

What are some really weird exceptions to all the above rules?

hematoma (swelling due to blood) and glaucoma (a condition of increased pressure within the eyeball, causing gradual loss of sight.)