Terms 2A Flashcards Preview

Conducting > Terms 2A > Flashcards

Flashcards in Terms 2A Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1

maestoso

majestically

2

marcato

emphasized, heavily accented

3

medesimo

the same

4

mediant

the third degree of the major or minor scale. the triad built on this degree is labeled iii in the major scale, III in the minor scale, and III+ in the harmonic scale.

5

medieval

the period prior to the Renaissance, c. 500-1450, marking the music of the early Christian church

6

melody

a succession of musical tones. It represents the linear or horizontal aspect of music.

7

meno mosso

less motion

8

mezzo

half, medium

9

mezzo forte

medium loud

10

mezzo piano

medium soft

11

mode

any scalewise arrangement of pitches; patterns upon which medieval music was structured, the patterns which preceded the development of major and minor scales and tonality

12

moderato

moderate speed

13

modulation

the process of changing from one key to another within a composition

14

molto

very; used with other terms e.g. molto allegro

15

mordent

an ornament consisting of an alteration (once or twice) of the written note by playing the immediately below it, or above it.

16

morendo

gradually decreasing in volume, dying away

17

motive

a short melodic or rhythmic pattern

18

moto

motion. con moto, with motion

19

nonharmonic tones

a designation for tones outside the harmonic structure of the chord. passing tone, appoggiatura

20

non troppo

not too much

21

nuance

subtle variations in tempo, phrasing, dynamics

22

octet

a piece for eight instruments or voices

23

open fifth

a triad without a third

24

open strings

strings are not stopped, fingered, or fretted

25

opus op

the term, meaning work, is used by composers to show the chronological order of their work

26

orchestration

the art of writing, arranging, or scoring for the orchestra

27

ornamentation

note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and add interest

28

ossia

"or" indicating an alternative passage or version

29

ostinato

a repeated melodic or rhythmic pattern, frequently appearing in the bass line

30

overtones

the almost inaudible higher tones which occur with the fundamental tone. They are the results of the vibration of small sections of a string or column of air. Partials and harmonics.

31

passing tones

unaccented notes which move conjunctly between two chords to which they do not belong harmonically

32

pesante

heavy

33

petite

little

34

phrase

a relatively short portion of a melodic line which expresses a musical idea, comparable to a line or sentence in poetry

35

pianoforte

"soft-loud" a keyboard instrument, the full name for the piano, on which sound is produced by hammers striking strings when keys are pressed. 88 keys

36

picardy third

term for raising of the third, making a major triad, in the final chord of a composition which is in a minor key.

37

piu

more

38

pizzicato

pinched. on string instruments, plucking the string

39

poco

little

40

primo

first

41

quartet

a piece for four instruments or voices. four performers

42

rallentando

gradually slower

43

renaissance

1450-1600

44

resonance

reinforcement and intensification of sound by vibrations

45

rhythm

term which denotes the organization of sound in time; the temporal quality of sound

46

rubato

flexibility of tempo to assist in achieving expressiveness

47

rudiments

on drums, the basis sticking patterns

48

sans

without

49

schnell

fast

50

secco

dry. unornamented

51

sempre

always

52

senza

without. used with other terms e.g. senza crescendo

53

sforzando

sudden strong accent on a note or chord

54

simile

an indication to continue in the same manner

55

sonata

an instrumental piece, often in several movements

56

sostenuto

sustaining of tone or slackening of tempo

57

spiccato

on string instruments, a bowing technique wherein the bow is bounced on the string at moderate speed

58

staccato

detached sounds, indicated by a dot over or under a note. the opposite of legato

59

stanza

a selection of a son, two or more lines long, characterized by a common meter, rhyme, and number of lines

60

subdominant

the fourth degree of the major or minor scale. Also, the name of the triad built on the fourth degree of the scale, indicated by IV in a major key and by iv in a minor key

61

subito

suddenly

62

suspension

the use of a nonharmonic tone to delay the resolution of a chord, frequently as it occurs

63

syncopation

accent on an unexpected beat

64

tempo primo

return to the original tempo

65

tenuto, ten

hold or sustain a note longer than the indicated value, usually not as long a duration as the fermata

66

ternary form

three part form in which the middle section is different from the other sections. ABA

67

terraced dynamics

the baroque style of using sudden changes in dynamic levels, as opposed to gradual increase and decrease in volume

68

tertian harmony

a term used to describe music based on chords arranged in intervals of thirds

69

tessitura

the general pitch range of a vocal part

70

tranquillo

tranquilly; quietly; calm

71

troppo

too much. used with other terms e.g. allegro non troppo not too fast

72

tutti

all. a direction for the entire ensemble to sing or play simultaneously

73

unison

singing or playing the same notes by all singers or players, either at exactly the same pitch or in a different octave

74

un poco

a little

75

virtuoso

a brillant, skillful performer

76

vivace

lively, brisk, quick, and bright