Terms - Common Flashcards Preview

MMC - MAPS > Terms - Common > Flashcards

Flashcards in Terms - Common Deck (289):
1

ABATE

to lessen or decrease

2

ABDOMINAL GUARDING

tensing of the abdominal wall muscles to guard inflamed organs within the abdomen from the pain of pressure upon them. The tensing is detected upon when the abdomen is pressed

3

ABERRATION

a deviation or irregularity - synonymous with deflection, departure, divergence, diversion, or turning.

4

ABDUCTION

the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body.

5

ABFRACTION

wear or noticing, at the neck of a tooth at or below the gumline.

6

ABIOTIC

not associated with living organisms. Anything in the environment incapable of life or incompatible with life or antagonist to it.

7

ABLATE

to remove.

8

ABRUPTION

a sudden breaking off or away.

9

ABSCESS

a local accumulation of pus anywhere in solid tissue of the body.

10

ACANTHOSIS

an increase in the thickness of the prickle cell layer of the epidermis

11

ACETABULUM

the cup-shaped socket of the hip joint designed for the head of the femur.

12

ACHLORHYDRIA

a lack of hydrochloric acid in the digestive juices of the stomach.

13

ACIDOSIS

a distinctly abnormal condition resulting from the accumulation of acid or from the depletion of alkaline reserves.

14

ACQUIRED

anything that is not present at birth but develops some time later.u

15

ACTINIC

refers to the ultraviolet rays from sunlight of ultraviolet lamps.

16

ACUTE

sudden (abrupt) onset and rapid clinical course of short duration

17

ADDICTION

a chronic relapsing condition characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and abuse and by long-lasting chemical changes in the brain,

18

AGENESIS

failure to develop the most primitive structure of a definitive organ

19

ADDUCTION

the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

20

AFFERENT

carrying toward

21

AGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA

total or near-total absence of gamma globulin

22

AGENESIS

lack of development of something (organ or tissue)

23

AGONIST

often mimics the action of a naturally occurring substance.

24

ALGOPHOBIA

an abnormal and persistent fear of pain

25

ALKALOSIS

a dangerous decrease in the normal acidity of the blood

26

ALLOGRAFT

the transplant of an organ or tissue from one individual to another of the same species

27

AMNIOCENTESIS

procedure used in prenatal diagnosis to obtain amniotic fluid for diagnostic tests

28

AMORPHOUS

lack of definite form

29

ANAEROBIC

condition/state not requiring oxygen

30

ANEURYSM

a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, vein, or the heart

31

ANOMALY

deviation from the average or norm

32

APHAGIA

inability to eat

33

APICOECTOMY

A surgical root canal treatment used to seal the tip of a root when surgical root canal treatment used to seal the tip of a root when conventional root canal treatment has failed or is contraindicated. Usually a very straight forward treatment with quick recovery.

34

APLASIA

failure to develop or grow past the primordial structure

35

ARTEFACT

a mechanically produced alteration

36

ARTERIAL

pertaining to arteries

37

ASCITES

accumulation of fluid in the abdominal or peritoneal cavity

38

ATELECTASIS

the incomplete expansion of the newly born infant's lung or a collapse of lungs.

39

ATYPICAL OR ATYPIA

describes findings that do not conform to normalcy or type.

40

AUTOLYSIS

disintegration of tissue or cells by action of their own autogenous enzymes

41

BACILLOPHOBIA

an abnormal and persistent fear of bacteria

42

BALANITIS

inflammation of the rounded head of the penis

43

BALANOPOSTHITIS

inflammation of glans penis and the prepuce

44

BARIATRICS

the field of medicine concerned with weight loss

45

BENIGN

a non-life threatening condition

46

BICUSPID

having two flaps or cusps as the valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle

47

BILATERAL

having, or relating to, two sides

48

BILIARY

having to do with the gallbladder, bile ducts or bile

49

BIOINFORMATICS

the sum of the computational approaches to analyze, manage, and store biological data

50

BONDING

The name given to the process of placing esthetic white fillings. As different from amalgam fillings, these bonded fillings actually adhere to the tooth structure and make the tooth stronger

51

BRADYCARDIA

a slow heart rate, usually defined as less than 60 beats per minute

52

BRADYKINESI

slowed ability to start and continue movements, and impaired ability to adjust to body's position

53

BREECH

the buttocks

54

BRUXISM (CLENCHING)

the habit of clenching and grinding the teeth using extremes of muscle power.

55

CACHEXIA

severe wasting of tissues due to long-standing chronic diseases and malignancies

56

CADAVER

a dead human body that may be used to study anatomy

57

CALCIFICATION

the process of depositing calcium in tissue

58

CALCULUS

a stone within the body and calcium salt deposits on the teeth

59

CALCULUS

the scientific term for tartar, which is the accumulation of calcified substance that adheres to the teeth.

60

CANCER

an abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread)

61

CARDIAC

pertaining to the heart

62

CALCULUS

renal stones, gallstones, or calcific deposits on teeth

63

CANKER SORE

A painful ulcer that lasts seven to ten days, usually on the looser gum tissue in the softer areas of the mouth. Scientifically known as aphthae.

64

CANCER

any malignant lesion

65

CARCINOMA

malignant lesion of epithelial origin

66

CARIES

molecular decay of teeth or bone

67

CAUDAD

toward the feet or, in embryology, toward the tail

68

CEMENTATION

The placement of a fixed crown or bridge with a dental cement to assure retention.

69

CENTENARIAN

someone who is 100 or more years old. Someone 110 years old and over may be also be referred to as a supercentenarian

70

CHAPERONE

any protein that is required for the proper folding or assembly of another protein or protein complex without being a component of the final structure

71

CHEMO

slang for chemotherapy (drug therapy for cancer)

72

CHIMERA

a person composed of two genetically distinct types of cells

73

CHRONIC

slow and insidious onset and clinical course

74

COARCTATION

a narrowing, stricture or constriction, particularly of a tubular structure

75

CODON

a set of any three adjacent bases in DNA or RNA

76

COHORT

in a clinical study, a well-defined group of subjects or patients who have had a common experience or exposure and are then followed up for the incidence of new diseases or events

77

COITUS

sexual union of a male and a female; also called sexual intercourse

78

COMPOSITE

The material traditionally used for bonded restorations. Made from an admixture of various glass particles in a polymerized gel

79

CONGENITAL

present at birth

80

CONGESTION

presence of abnormal amount of blood, passively, in the vessels of a part

81

CORNIFICATION

conversion of epithelium to keratinized squamous type

82

CORTEX

outer layer of an organ

83

CRAPULENCE

sickness or indisposition resulting from an excess of drinking or eating

84

CREPITATION

Grinding or gravelly sounds from within the jaw joint resulting from direct contact of bone against bone with no disc, or cushion, in between. May be with or without associated pain

85

CURETTAGE

the act of removing infected tissue from a wound; used commonly in dentistry to refer to the removal of grossly inflammed gum tissue caused be severe periodontal disease.

86

CURETTE

spoon-shaped instrument with a sharp edge designed for removing tissue or growth from the surface of a structure

87

CYSTS

sac containing a liquid or a semisolid substance

88

DEBRIDEMENT

the process of removing dead, contaminated or adherent foreign material. The act of cleansing an infected area

89

DECUBITUS

a bed sore as the consequence of lying down in one position too long

90

DEMENTIA

significant loss of intellectual abilities severe enough to interfere with social and occupational functioning

91

DESMOPLASIA

the excessive growth of fibrous or connective tissue

92

DIABETES

condition characterized by excessive urination

93

DIAPEDESIS

outward passage through intact vessel walls of corpuscular elements of the blood

94

DICOR

A decade old procedure for all porcelain crowns.

95

DIATHESIS

refers to a predisposition or tendency

96

DILATATION OR DILATION

stretching or distention of tissue beyond normal dimensions

97

DIVERTICULUM

abnormal pouch leading of a luminal structure

98

DROPSY

an old term for any condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of fluid in body cavities and subcutaneous tissue

99

DYSPAREUNIA

pain during sexual intercourse

100

ECLAMPSIA

convulsion (seizures) occurring with pregnancy-associated hypertension

101

ECTOPIC

in the wrong place/out of place/not in the usual location

102

EFFACEMENT

virtually total destruction/the thinning of the cervix which occurs before and while it dilates during delivery of a newborn

103

EFFUSION

Too much fluid/an outpouring of fluid.

104

ELEPHANTIASIS

grossly enlarged extremities secondary to lymphatic obstruction

105

EMBOLI

something that travels through the blood stream, lodges in a blood vessel and blocks it.

106

EMESIS

vomiting

107

ENAMEL

The hard crystalline material that covers the outside of the tooth. The hardest substance in the human body

108

ENANTHEM

a rash inside the body

109

ENCOPRESIS

inability to control the elimination of stool (fecal incontinence)

110

ENDEMIC

disease present in a community continually but in relatively low frequency

111

ENURESIS

involuntary urination

112

EPIDEMIC

disease occurring in a community spontaneously and at a high rate

113

EPISIOTOMY

a surgical procedure for widening the outlet of the birth canal to facilitate delivery of the baby and to avoid a jagged rip of the perineum (the area between the anus and vulva, the opening of the vagina

114

EPISPADIAS

congenital malformation in which the opening of the urethra (from which comes the urinary stream) is on the dorsum (topside) of the penis as opposed to hypospadias in which the opening is on the ventral (underside) of the penis

115

EPISTAXIS

nosebleed

116

ERUCTATION

burping or belching/casting up wind (expelling air) from the stomach through the mouth

117

EXFOLIATE

to peal off spontaneously or deliberately wear away the top layer of a surface epithelium.

118

EXUDATE

substance that passes through membranes (vessels) in an inflammatory condition and has high content of serum proteins

119

FISTULA

an abnormal connection between two epithelial surface which may present as a drainage spot in the gums.

120

FLATULENCE

excess gas in the intestinal tract

121

FLEXION

the process of bending or in the state of being bent

122

FOCAL

a localized area of disease/the point at which rays converge

123

FOUNDATION

A filling done before a crown or bridge preparation. It is especially designed to be retentive in the tooth and to provide strength underneath the crown or bridge

124

FURUNCLE

a collection of pus of the skin ("boil")

125

GAMETOPHOBIA

an abnormal and persistent fear of being married.

126

GANGRENE

the death of body tissue due to the loss of blood supply to that tissue, especially of an extremity, and some times permitting bacteria to invade the tissue and accelerate its decay

127

GARGOYLISM

the term conveys the often-grotesque image of the medieval cathedral gargoyle

128

GASTROSCHISIS

a defect in the abdominal wall allowing for protrusion of abdominal content.

129

GERIATRIC

the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease in older people and the problems specific to aging

130

GESTATION

the period of time from conception to birth

131

GINGIVOPLASTY

The reshaping of gum contours, often for esthetic purposes

132

GINGIVECTOMY

The removal of excess or extra gum tissue to improve cleansibility and health

133

GOITER

enlargement of the thyroid gland

134

GRANULOMA

a localized collection of mononuclear phagocytic cells

135

GREENSTICK FRACTURE

a fracture in which one side of a bone is broken while the other is bent similar to that of a green stick

136

GREGARIOUS

living in the company of others

137

GYMNOPHOBIA

an abnormal and persistent fear of nudity

138

HAMARTOMA

a non-neoplastic collection of tissue native to the area in a tumor-like fashion

139

HEMAGIOMA

a localized mass of blood vessels and on the skin manifests as the "birth mark"

140

HEMATOMA

a collection blood in the subcutaneous tissue following a venipuncture

141

HEMOPHILIA

a group of inherited bleeding disorders in which the ability of blood to clot is impaired

142

HEPATIC

pertaining to the liver

143

HERNIA

a general term referring to a protrusion of a tissue through the wall of a cavity in which it is normally contained

144

HYDROCELE

an accumulation of fluid in the space around the testes

145

HYDROCEPHALUS

an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain

146

IATROGENIC

disease due to the action of the therapist or a prescribed therapy

147

IDIOPATHIC

etiology unknown

148

ILEUS

obstruction of the intestine due to it being paralyzed

149

IMMATURITY

incomplete maturation of growth and development

150

INDURATION

hardening of soft tissue of the body

151

IMPACTION

A tooth that is "stuck", or can grow no further into the mouth. Usually referrs to wisdom teeth, but any tooth can be impacted under unusual circumstances

152

IMPLANTS

Artificial tooth roots that are placed into and fuse with the bone of the jaw. They can be used to replace teeth or to support and retain dentures.

153

IMPRESSION

A mold, or negative, or intaglio of a tooth or teeth. Impressions are used to make crowns, bridges, veneers, dentures, some fillings, and study models

154

INFARCT

an area of tissue death generally due to a local lack of oxygen

155

INLAY

A laboratory made internal filling, cemented or bonded into a tooth

156

IN SITU

in normal location/a neoplastic growth that is confined to its site of origin and has not invaded neighboring tissue or gone elsewhere in the body

157

INSOMNIA

inadequate or slow quality of sleep

158

INTERSTITIAL

spaces between the cells

159

ISCHEMIA

virtual total blood supply to an area due to blockage of the blood vessels

160

KARYOTYPE

a standard arrangement of the chromosome complement done for chromosome analysis

161

KELOID

tumor-like mass of connective tissue in response to injury

162

KERATECTOMY

the removal of part of the cornea

163

KERATOSIS

the overgrowth of the horny (keratinized) layer of the epidermis

164

KERNICTERUS

high blood level of unconjugated bilirubin with deposition in the brain resulting in injury

165

KYPHOSIS

outward curvature of the spine, causing a humped back

166

LACRIMAL

pertaining to tears

167

LAMINA

a plate or layer

168

LANUGO

downy hair on the body of the fetus or newborn baby (neonate)

169

LAPAROSCOPE

an instrument through which structures within the abdomen and pelvis can be observed

170

LATENT

hidden, dormant, inactive

171

LAVAGE

washing out

172

LIBIDO

sexual drive or the psychic energy from all instinctive biological drives

173

LIGAND

a molecule that binds to another molecule

174

LIGATE

to tie or to tie off

175

LINGUAL

pertaining to the tongue

176

LIPID

pertaining to fat

177

LORDOSIS

excessive inward curvature of the spine

178

LUETIC

pertaining to syphilis

179

LUMEN

passage or space within a tubular structure

180

LYONIZATION

the inactivation of an X chromosome

181

MACULE

a small localized pigmented lesion of the skin without elevation or depression

182

MALIGNANT

life-threatening

183

MALOCCLUSION

Bad or misaligned bite.

184

MASOCHISM

pleasure from ones own pain

185

MASTALGIA

pain in the breast

186

MASTICATE

to chew, grind or pulverize food until it turns to a pulp

187

MATURITY

complete growth and/or maturation

188

MEATUS

an opening or passageway

189

MEIOSIS

the process of germ cell formation with the reduction of chromosome number from 46 to 23

190

MELENA

stool stained black by blood pigment or dark blood products (tarry stools)

191

MENARCHE

the time in a girl's life that menstruation first begins

192

MENOPAUSE

the time in a woman's life when menstrual periods permanently cease

193

MESENTERY

a fold of tissue which attaches organs to the body wall

194

MESIODENS

An extra tooth lodged in between the front teeth.

195

METASTASIS

the process by which cancer spreads from a primary site to a secondary site

196

MICTURITION

the act of urinating

197

MIMETIC

pertaining to the ability to imitate

198

MIOSIS

contraction of the pupils

199

MITOSIS

the ordinary form of cell division without reduction in the number of chromosomes

200

MITRAL

resembling the bishop's headdress, the miter

201

MORBITITY

non-fatal threatening state of a disease

202

MORTALITY

fatal threatening state of a disease

203

MOSAIC

an individual or tissue containing two or more types of genetically different cells

204

MURMUR

a sound due to vibrations from the flow of blood through the heart

205

MYDRIASIS

dilatation of the pupils

206

MYOSITIS

Muscle inflammation caused by overuse and oxygen debt

207

NATRIURESIS

the excretion of an excessively large amount of sodium in the urine

208

NEONATAL

pertaining to the newborn period which is the first four weeks after birth

209

NEOPLASM

new uncontrolled/autonomous growth

210

NIDUS

central point of origin/any structure that resembles a nest

211

NUCHAL

pertaining to the back of the neck

212

NULLIPAROUS

never having given birth to a child

213

NYSTAGMUS

rapid rhythmic repetitious involuntary eye movements

214

OCCULT

hidden

215

ODYNOPHAGIA

pain upon swallowing food and fluids

216

OMENTUM

a sheet of fat that is covered by peritoneum

217

OMPHALOS

the umbilicus (navel)

218

ONGOGENE

a mutated gene that contributes to the growth of a neoplasm

219

ONLAY

A tooth restoration that covers the entire biting surface.

220

PALLIATE

to treat partially and incompletely for reduction of the severity of the consequences of the disease

221

PALPATE

to touch or feel

222

PALPEBRAL

pertaining to the eyelid

223

PALPITATIONS

unpleasant sensations of irregular and/or forceful beating of the heart

224

PARENCHYMA

functional element of an organ or a tissue

225

PARENTERAL

entering the body not by the alimentary tract but rather by another mean, subcutaneous, intramuscular or intravenous

226

PARESIS

partial or incomplete paralysis

227

PARESTHESIA

an abnormal spontaneous sensation such as burning, pricking, numbness, tingling, creeping, etc.

228

PAROXYSM

a sudden, violent episode/abrupt worsening of preexisting symptoms

229

PARTURITION

the process of delivering the baby and placenta

230

PATENT

open, unobstructed, affording free passage

231

PRIMER

A dentin treatment which allows it to bond to composite materials similarly to enamel.

232

PROBAND

the family member through whom a family's medical history comes known

233

PROGNATHISM

an overly prominent jaw

234

PROPHYLAXIS

A routine cleaning for healthy teeth and gums.

235

PULP

The technical name for the "nerve" inside the tooth; actually contains a nerve, an artery, a vein, a0. lymphatic drainage, and some primordial cells.

236

QUIESCENT

marked by a state of inactivity, repose, or tranquillity

237

RADIAL

spreading from a central point

238

RECESSIVE

a condition occurring in the absence of a gene responsible for the dominant trait

239

RECOMBINANT

a new combination of genes

240

REGURGITATION

a backward flowing

241

RENAL

pertaining to the kidney

242

RESECTABLE

capable of being removed

243

RESUSCITATION

the procedure of restoring to life

244

RIGOR

a chill with shivering/rigidity

245

SAGITTAL

a vertical plane passing through the standing body from front to back

246

SALIENT

a feature which is very prominent - "standing out"

247

SALUTARY

promoting health or well-being

248

SANGUINE

having a ruddy or reddish coloration

249

SARCOMA

malignant lesion of mesenchymal origin

250

SCLEROSIS

hardening as the result of increase fibrosis

251

SCOLIOSIS

lateral curvature of the spine

252

SENESCENCE

an aged state

253

SENSITIVITY

Discomfort in a tooth caused by touch, sweet, hot, cold, biting pressure, or releasing pressure.

254

SEPTICEMIA

toxicity due to invasion of the bloodstream by virulent bacteria usually coming from a local site of infection

255

SEQUELA

a pathological condition resulting from a prior disease or injury

256

SHOCK

failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate tissue perfusion which sharply decreases the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to vital organs

257

SOMNOLENT

sleepy or tendency to cause sleep

258

STASIS

stoppage of flow of blood or lymph

259

STENOSIS

narrowing of vessels or a tubular structure

260

STROKE

the sudden death of brain tissue due to a lack of oxygen when blood flow to the brain is impaired due to blockage or bleeding (hemorrhage). Often called a cerebrovascular accident and indicated as CVA

261

STROMA

supporting framework of a tissue

262

SUBACUTE BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS

An infection of the valve and muscle tissue inside the heart.

263

SUBLUXATION

partial displacement of a structure with complete displacement being designated as luxation

264

SUPINATION

rotation of the forearm and hand so that the palm is up or the foot and leg with the sole up. The opposite is pronation

265

SYNCEPHALY

conjoined twins whose heads are joined together

266

SYNCOPE

partial or complete loss of consciousness with interruption of awareness of oneself and ones surroundings

267

SYNDROME

a set of signs and symptoms that tend to occur together and which reflect the presence of a particular disease or an increased likelihood of developing a particular disease

268

TACHYCARDIA

a rapid heart rate, usually defined as greater than 100 beats per minute

269

TERATOGEN

any agent that can disturb the development of an embryo or fetus

270

TINNITUS

a sensation of "ringing" in the ears or another noise that seems to originate in the ears or head

271

TOTIPOTENT

having unlimited capability

272

TRANSFERRIN

a plasma protein that transport iron through the blood to the liver, spleen and bone marrow

273

TRIMESTER

the distinct three month periods associated with pregnancy

274

TUMOR

any abnormal mass of tissue (inflammatory, neoplastic - benign or malignant)

275

TRANSUDATE

substance that passes through membranes (vessels) in non-inflammatory conditions and has a low content of serum proteins

276

ULCER

significant break in surface continuity

277

URACHUS

an embryonic canal which connects the bladder with the umbilical cord

278

UREMIA

the presence of excessive amount of nitrogenous waste product in the blood which often signifies renal failure

279

VALGUS

angled outward, bent or twisted outward

280

VARICOSE VEIN

a dilated, tortuous vein often associated with incompetency of the valves in the veins

281

VENOUS

pertaining to veins

282

VERRUCA

a local growth of the outer layer of the skin (wart) caused by the human papilloma virus

283

VERTIGO

a feeling of dizzily turning around or that things are dizzily turning about you

284

VESSICLE

a small fluid-filled space on the skin and some mucous membrane

285

VOLVULUS

abnormal twisting of the intestine which can impair the blood flow to the affected area

286

WHEAL

a raised, itchy (pruritic) area of the skin generally in association with allergy

287

XANTHOMA

yellowish firm nodules in the skin frequently seen in diabetics and lipid disorders

288

XENOGRAFT

a surgical graft from one species to an unlike species

289

ZYGOTE

the cell formed by the union of a male sex cell (sperm) and a female sex cell (ovum)