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Flashcards in Terrain and Landscape Deck (294):
0

aspect or conformation of land

landscape

1

particular extensive locale of land

area, region, tract, expanse

2

plant growth or life

vegetation, foliage

3

visibly green plant life or trees

greenery, verdure

4

grassy (or nonwoody) vegetation

herbage

5

greenery as cover or food for deer

vert

6

region abounding in trees

forest, woods, woodland, forestland

7

extensive tropical wet woodland with tall trees that form a light blocking canopy

rain forest

8

extensive area of barren and arid land

desert

9

extensive area of treeless grassland (with tall grasses)

prairie (South America: pampa)

10

extensive area of treeless grassland (with short grasses) and less rainfall than a prairie

steppe

11

steppe with scattered trees and shrubs (especially in Africa)

veld, veldt

12

extensive grazing grassland with scattered trees and shrubs

savanna, savannah, campo

13

extensive treeless plain in the southeastern US

savana, savannah

14

extensive plain with few trees in the southwestern US

llano

15

extensive northern (subarctic) evergreen forest that is moist

taiga, boreal forest

16

extensive northern (arctic and subarctic) treeless plain with mucky soil

tundra

17

tundra treeless because of elevation (rather than latitude)

alpine tundra

18

alpine forest having stunted trees

krummholz, elfinwood

19

level area of terrain

flatland, flats

20

extensive area of flat open terrain

plain, champaign, campagna

21

grass-covered tract of level land

meadow

22

green tract of grassland

sward, greenward, turf

23

grassland tract for gazing or hay

pasture, lea

24

tract of open and rolling land with poor soil

moor, heath, moorland

25

high moor or barren field

fell

26

barren land

waste, wasteland, barren

27

tract of sandy ground where topsoil has been blown away by the wind

sandblow

28

extensive area of uncultivated and little-populated terrain

wilderness, the bush, backcountry, wilds (Australia: outback)

29

land covered by grass

grassland

30

grassland for grazing

pasture, pastureland, pasturage

31

municipal track of public and usually park-like land

common

32

tract of grass-covered ground cultivated or mowed

lawn

33

long strip of terrain

swath, swathe

34

yard or field used as a household kitchen garden or for a few farm animals

croft (British)

35

low terrain

bottom, bottomland

36

high terrain

heights

37

geological fracture in the earth's crust

fault, rift

38

opening or recession in terrain

hole, cavity, depression, hollow, basin, pan

39

open longitudinal depression

trench, ditch

40

small and nestled (usually wooded) valley

dell, glen, dingle

41

deep and narrow valley

hollow, combe, coomb, coombe

42

deep and steep-sided valley (often with a river)

canyon, canon

43

small and narrow steep-sided valley (often with a stream)

gorge, ravine, flume, gulch, clough (South Africa: kloof)

44

divide between valleys or side of a valley

coteau

45

small ravine sometimes having rainwater flowing in it

gully, clough, draw, coulee nullah, wash, wadi (South Africa: donga)

46

flat-bottomed gulch or gully sometimes having rainwater flowing in it

arroyo

47

long hollow or depression

trough

48

deep drop or hollow

gulf, abyss, chasm

49

chasm formed by receding ice

randkluft

50

valley

vale, dale

51

drainage depression or hollow

sinkhole, sink, swallow, swallowhole, dolina, doline

52

limestone sinkhole with a pool or deep natural well

cenote

53

flat-floored and steep-walled depression with no outflowing stream

polje

54

extensive or deep mucky or mossy basin

mudhole, muskeg

55

ground that slants upward or downward

slope, incline, grade

56

upward slope

acclivity, rise

57

downward slope

declivity

58

gentle slope

glacis

59

precipitous slope

steep

60

describing a tree or forest with foliage that falls off annually

deciduous

61

describing a tree or forest with foliage that stays and remains green throughout the year

evergreen

62

area of dense trees

wood, woods, forest

63

small group or grouping of trees (usually without undergrowth)

grove

64

cluster of shrubs or small trees

shrubbery, thicket

65

patch of thick or twisted growth

tangle

66

grove or thicket of small trees

copse, coppice, arbustum (British: spinney)

67

shrubs and other low vegetation in a forest

underbrush, brush, undergrowth

68

leafy tree-enclosed nook or recess

arbor, bower

69

dense thicket of shrubs or dwarf trees

chaparral

70

group of planted fruit or nut trees

orchard

71

growth or array of one type of tree (or plant) in an area

stand

72

tract of shrubby and uncultivated open land

heath

73

area of low trees and bushes

scrub

74

thicket where game hide

covert

75

thicket of cane

canebrake

76

narrow-tree or branch-covered pathway

tunnel

77

tree-bordered or hedged and park-like walk alley planned or mall-like alley whose trees are at least twice as high as the route width

allee

78

moist land

wetland, wetlands

79

tract of low and wet or spongy ground

marsh, bog, fen, swamp, wash, slough, marshland

80

swampy grassland with branching waterway

everglade

81

low land subject to flood tides

tideland, tidelands

82

flat and usually muddy tideland

tidal flat

83

flat land having brackish water

salt marsh

84

area under water that is shallow

shallows

85

rough or marshy tract of land with one kind of vegetation (shrubs or ferns)

brake, bracken

86

sunken and wet tract of land

swale

87

moist low-lying land (usually pineland)

flatwoods

88

clump of grass

tussock

89

country having few or no trees

open country

90

country that is level and low in altitude

lowland, lowlands

91

country that is elevated or mountainous

highland, highlands, upland, uplands

92

high point

elevation, eminence

93

top of a hill

hilltop, rise

94

projection at the top of a hill

brow

95

small and rounded hill

knoll, hillock, hummock, monicule, monticle, mound (England: barrow)

96

hill with a broad top

loma

97

lower hills beneath mountains

foothills

98

narrow or oval hill

drumlin

99

rounded elevation

swell

100

rounded solitary hill usually with steep sides

knob

101

mound in permafrost terrain

pingo

102

African veld's small and scrubby hill

kopje, koppie

103

open upland of rolling hills or open country

wold

104

rolling grassy upland with few trees

down, downs

105

one of successive indentations (from slumping soil) on a hillside

catstep, terracette

106

high and craggy hill or rocky peak

tor

107

colossal single rock or rock formation

monolith

108

oddly or fantastically shaped (eroded) rock column

hoodoo

109

single rock or boulder carried to where it is by a glacier

erratic

110

rounded or hump-like natural formation

dome

111

notably arched or bridge-like formation

natural bridge, arch

112

prominent isolated or bare rock

scar

113

smooth and slippery rock

slickrock

114

tree deformed by wind

wind cripple

115

parapet-like natural formation atop a wall

battlement

116

projecting or support like natural formation

buttress

117

extensive flat topped land elevation that rises steeply on at last once side

plateau, tableland

118

small and isolated plateau

mesa

119

small mesa

mesilla

120

isolated steep hill or small mountain (flat, rounded, cone-like, or pointed)

butte

121

solitary and fragmentary mountain

inselberg

122

series of mountains

range, chain

123

system of mountain chains (sometimes parallel)

cordillera

124

chain of mountains with sawtooth-like peaks

sierra

125

chain of hills or mountains

ridge, chine

126

ridge dividing drainage direction and regions

watershed, divide

127

area at the foot of a mountain range

piedmont

128

slope of a mountain

mountainside, versant (of a mountain chain or region)

129

slope of a hill

hillside

130

right or left of a formation or mountain

flank

131

top of a mountain

peak, summit, pike

132

exposed rock surface

fce

133

pyramindal peak usually with concave faces (where three or more aretes meet)

horn

134

elevation overlooking other terrain

heights

135

elevated place

aerie, eyrie

136

high and rugged mountain

alp

137

mountain range sections or mass

massif

138

projection laterally or on an angle from a mountain

spur

139

mountain or hill protuberance

buttress

140

area near the top or to the side of a mountain

shoulder

141

rugged and sharp-crested mountain ridge

arete, hogback

142

short mound or ridge

kame

143

winding ridge that is gravelly or sandy

esker

144

diff formation or line of cliffs

scarp, escarpment, palisade, palisades

145

jagged glacial ridge or pinnacle (as in an ice fall)

serac

146

precipitous place

steep, precipice

147

very steep descent or wall

niche

148

projection of rock

outcrop, outcropping

149

weathered quarry face

rock face

150

steep and bare rocky outcrop or cliff

scar

151

flat layer of rock

shelf

152

narrow level space along or projecting from a cliff or slope

ledge, shelf

153

cliff or wall projection viewed from below

overhang

154

pointed rock formation

pinnacle

155

long narrow opening

fissure, cleft, rift

156

deep cleft through a mountain ridge

gap, notch

157

channel or scoop-like depression between mountains

pass, col, saddle

158

narrow pass between hills or cliffs

defile, gorge

159

mountainside gorge or gully

couloir

160

cleft that is steep and narrow in a cliff or mountain face

chimney

161

bowl-like mountain basin with steep walls

cirque, cum, come, corry

162

steep wall of a cirque

headwall

163

roughly circular or oval flat area enclosed at one end by a curve of higher ground

amphitheater

164

glacial fissure or crevice that is deep

crevasse, bergschrund

165

series of crevasses

bergschrund

166

granular or ice-like mountain (glacial) snow

neve, firn

167

ledge-like plain above a river or body of water

terrace

168

rocky detritus (debris) on a mountain slope

scree

169

rocky detritus beneath a cliff

talus

170

slope formed of rocky detritus

talus

171

glacial deposit of boulders and stones

moraine

172

wall-like ridge rocks, ice, debris, etc.

rampart

173

sloping area of jumbled glacial ice blocks

icefall

174

mountain (with a crater) formed by ejected material

volcano

175

wide volcano crater (formed by eruptions or rim collapse)

caldera

176

volcanic vapor hole

fumarole

177

spring that at times throws up jets of hot water or steam

geyser

178

extinct volcano crater often containing a lake or marsh

maar

179

vast moving or spreading mass of ice

glacier

180

vertical shaft (worn by falling surface water through a crack) in a glacier

moulin

181

mantle of perennial ice and snow

ice cap, ice sheet

182

sheet of floating ice

floe

183

large floe

ice field

184

mountain like mass of floating ice

iceberg

185

massed array of ice formations at sea

ice pack

186

mass of ice fragments

brash

187

fragment of thin ice near shore

pan

188

submarine (undersea) mountain

seamount

189

flat-topped seamount

guyot

190

underground or rock-walled chamber

cave, cavern, grotto

191

icicle-like formation having in a cave

stalactite, dripstone

192

icicle-like formation on the floor of a cave

stalagmite, dripstone

193

country route or path

trail, lane, track

194

zigzagging path or road

switchback

195

raised path or road across water or a marsh

causeway

196

land arm almost completely surrounded by water

peninsula, chersonese

197

land formation jutting into the sea or other large body of water

cape

198

tongue (of land)

neck

199

land tip or projection

point

200

crescent-shaped arm of land

horn

201

elevated land area jutting over the sea or other large body of water

headland, promontory, ness, naze

202

neck or strip (sometimes prehistoric or submerged) between two relatively large landmasses

land bridge

203

land along the sea temporarily covered by tides or saturated during floods

tideland

204

level area sometimes covered by water

tidal flat, mud flat

205

land along a river subject to flooding

floodplain

206

bordering terrain along a river

riverbank

207

flat area encrusted with salt

salt flat

208

narrow projection of sandy or gravel terrain

spit

209

river's mouth (debouchment's) often fan-shaped sedimentary plain

delta, alluvial plain

210

river (alluvial) land between a levee and its lower-water stage

batture

211

sandbar connecting two islands or an island and its mainland

tombolo

212

small jutting of sand or gravel at water's edge

spit, sandpit, reach

213

flat place suitable for landing goods from a boat

landing

214

channel or passage that runs beneath cliffs from the shore inland

gat

215

sea's juncture with a river's mouth

estuary

216

sea inlet or arm

estuary, firth, frith

217

shallow arm of the sea or of a river

wash

218

connecting passage between two large bodies of water

strait, fretum

219

wide strait or navigable connecting waterway

channel

220

shoreline indentation

inlet

221

shoreline indentation that is sheltered

cove, creek, hole, basin

222

pool of water left after the tide recedes

tidal pool, tide pool

223

pool of water between two beaches

beach pool

224

shallow pond near a body of water

lagoon

225

long lagoon near the sea

haff

226

sea inlet that is extensive

gulf

227

sea inlet smaller than a gulf

bay, embayment

228

sea inlet or creek shallower inland

ria

229

bay at a coastal bend

bight

230

sea inlet that is long or separates an island from a mainland

sound

231

sea inlet that is narrow and has steep slopes or cliffs

fjord, fiord

232

shallow area of water

shallows

233

land body surrounded by water

island, isle

234

large group or chain of islands (or their ocean area)

archipelago

235

small island

islet, ait, eyot

236

low coral island or visible reef

cay, key

237

ring-like coral island or reef surrounding a lagoon

atoll

238

land border along water

coast, coastline, shore, shoreline, seaboard, littoral

239

sandy margin along water

beach, strand, playa, lido

240

pebbled or stony beach

shingle

241

swampy coastline

maremma

242

mound of accrued or windblown sand

dune

243

crescent-like dune that shifts

barchan, barchane, barkhan

244

shallow place in a sea or river

shoal

245

submerged (or partly so) bank of sand or gravel obstructive to navigation

bar, sandbar, sandback, shoal, reef

246

coral ridge-like growth usually near the surface in warm seas

reef

247

sea rock opening through which water intermittently spouts

blowhole, gloup

248

any flowing line of fresh water

watercourse, course, channel, waterway, stream (archiac: freshet)

249

junction of two rivers

watersmeet

250

inland-flowing course of fresh water smaller than a river

stream, brook, creek

251

small stream

streamlet, brooklet, rivulet, rill, runnel, burn

252

winding stream

meander, serpentile

253

winding stream dividing around a neck of land

oxbow

254

river or stream feeding a larger river

tributary, feeder

255

open stretch of river

reach

256

river's upper tributaries

headwaters

257

onrushing or raging stream

torrent

258

turbulent and rock-obstructed part of a river

rapid, rapids

259

steep rapids

cataract

260

abrupt or steep river descent

chute

261

narrow channel or strait with swift and dangerous waters

euripus

262

dangerously cross-currented or turbulent patch of water

rip

263

river or stream channel in a mountain ridge gap

water gap

264

trough for water

run

265

shallow area of water that can be waded across

ford

266

inland body of (usually) fresh water

lake, loch, mere

267

small lake or standing body of water

pond, lakelet, pondlet, pool, water hole

268

artificial lake

reservoir

269

small mountain lake with steep banks

tarn

270

artificial pond subject to the tides or a river or stream

tidal basin

271

stagnant pool

stagnum

272

ocean, sea

the deep, the briny deep, blue water

273

water moving in an inward (centripetal) circle

whirlpool, maelstrom, gurge, vortex

274

small whirlpool

eddy

275

waterfall

cataract, cascade

276

damn in a stream

weir

277

embankment to prevent river flooding

levee

278

beach or harbour protective structure offshore

breakwater, mole

279

pertaining to or like land

terrestrial

280

pertaining to or like the ocean

oceanic, marine, pelagic, thalassic

281

pertaining to the ocean depths or bottom

benthic, benthonic

282

pertaining to or like a river

riverine, fluvial, amnic

283

pertaining to or like a riverbank

riverain

284

pertaining to or like a shore

littoral, riparian

285

pertaining to or like swamp

swampy, marshy, quaggy, boggy, paludal

286

pertaining to or like a plain field

campestral

287

pertaining to or like a mountain

montane

288

pertaining to or like an island

insular

289

pertaining to a shore region moist but always above water

supra littoral

290

pertaining to a shore region between the high water and low water line

littoral

291

pertaining to an ocean zone from the low-water line to the edge of teh continental shelf

sublittoral, neritic

292

pertaining to an ocean zone from the continental shelf to a depth of some 13,000 feet (4,000 meters)

bathyal, bathypelagic

293

pertaining to an ocean zone deeper than 20,000 feet (6,500 metres)

hadal