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What is Forensic psychology

A field of psychology that deals with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system


What is a Clinical forensic psychologist?

Psychologists who are broadly concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental health issues as they pertain to the law or legal system


The list of what clinical forensic psychologist can deal with:

Divorce and child custody mediation, determinations of criminal responsibility and fitness to stand trial, providing expert testimony on questions of psychological nature, personnel selection, conducting critical incident stress debriefing's with police officers, designing and conducting treatment programs for offenders


What can experimental forensic psychologist research?

Examining effectiveness of risk assessment strategies, determining what factors influenced jury decision-making, developing and testing better ways to conduct eyewitness lineups, evaluating offender and victim treatment programs, studying impacts of questioning style on eyewitness memory recall, examining effects of stress management interventions on police officers


What is forensic anthropology

Examining the remains of deceased victims to determine key facts about them


What is forensic linguistics

Examine the spoken and written word eg. Suicide note


What is forensic chemistry

Study the chemical aspects of crime scenes


What is forensic odontology

Study the dental aspects of criminal activity


What is forensic pathology

Examine the remains of dead bodies to determine the time and cause of death conduct physical autopsy


What is forensic entomology

Concerned with how insects can assist with criminal investigations


What is a forensic psychologist legal scholar

I kind of psychology and law, evolves with society


What is psychology and law?

The use of psychology to examine the operation of the legal system
Ex. Are eyewitness accurate, false confessions, sentencing.


What is psychology in the law

The use of psychology and legal system as that system operates
Ex. Psychologist taking stand as expert witness


What is psychology of the law

The use of psychology to examine the law itself
Ex. What role do police play in domestic abuse, does law reduce crime in society


Who was Julian Varendonck

Belgian psychologist concluded that the testimony of children likely to be inaccurate and children are prone to suggestion


Who is Hugo Musterurgh:

Student of Wilhelm Wundt the father of forensic psychology, collection of essays of how psychology has much to offer legal system and could assist with issues such as: eyewitness testimony crime detection both confessions suggestibility hypnotism crime prevention


Justice Warren and what he stated as modern authority

Research in the social sciences demonstrating the detrimental effect of segregation


Five signs of legitimate field psychology

1. Growing number of high-quality textbooks in the area provide the opportunity to teach students about forensic psychology
2. Large number of academic journals are now dedicated to various aspects of the field and more mainstream psychology journals are beginning to publish research for the friends that coming out of regular rate
3. I number of professional associations have now been developed to represent the interests of forensic psychology and to promote research and practice in the area
4. New training opportunities in forensic psychology both undergraduate and graduate levels establishing North America and existing training opportunities are being improved
5. American psychological Association formally recognized forensic psychology as a specialty discipline


What is an expert witness

A witness who provides the court with information often an opinion on a particular matter that assists the court in understanding an issue of relevance to a case


What are the seven differences between psychology and the law

Knowledge, methodology, epistemology, criteria, nature of law, principles, latitude


What is the general acceptance test

A standard for accepting expert testimony which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the basis of the testimony is generally accepted within the relevant scientific community provided by qualified expert must be relevant and reliable


What is the Daubert criteria

A standard for excepting expert testimony which states scientific evidence is valid if the research on which it's based has been peer-reviewed is testable has a recognized rate of error and adheres to professional standards


What is the Mohan criteria?

A standard for accepting expert testimony which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the testimony is relevant, is necessary for assisting the trier fact, doesn't violate any exclusionary rules and is provided by a qualified expert


What is police interrogation

A process whereby police interview a suspect for the purpose of gathering evidence and obtaining a confession


What is the Mr. big technique

Police officer goes undercover and poses as a member of a criminal organization and attempts to lure the suspect into the gang. The suspect is made to commit minor crimes and must confess a serious crime in order to get a higher level job.


What are the three stages of the Reid model

First stage gather evidence related to the crime and to interview witness and victim, Second stage conduct a non-accusatory interview of the suspect to assess any evidence of deception, third stage conduct an accusatory interrogation of the suspect in which a nine step procedure is implemented with the primary objective being to secure a confession


What are the nine steps of the Reid model

1. Suspect confronted with his guilt
2. Psychological themes are then developed that allowed suspect to justify rationalize or excuse crime
3. Interrogator interrupt any statements of denial
4. Interrogator overcome suspects objections to the charges
5. Interrogator reduces psychological distance between them and suspect
6. Interrogator exhibit sympathy and understanding and suspect deserves to come clean
7. Suspect is offered face-saving explanations for the crime
8. Suspect accepts responsibility for the crime interrogator develops his admission into a full confession
9. Interrogator gets the suspect to write and sign for confession


What are minimization techniques

Soft sell tactics used by police interrogators designed to lolls suspect into a false sense of security use of sympathy excuses justification


What are maximization techniques

Scare tactics used by police interrogators designed to intimidate a suspect believed to be guilty exaggerating seriousness of the fence making false claims about evidence


What are three issues with the Reid model

Detecting deception
Investigator bias
Interrogation practices and the court


Specific problems with investigator bias

Interrogators with guilty expectations ostmark questions that indicated their belief in the suspects guilt, used a higher frequency of interrogation techniques, judged more suspects to be guilty, exerted more pressure on suspects to confess.


What does the peace model stand for

Planning and preparation, engage and explain, account, closure, evaluation


What is a false confession

A confession that solicited in response to a demand from a confession and is either intentionally fabricated or is not based on actual knowledge of the fax that form its content


What is a retracted confession

A confession that the confessor later declares to be false regardless of whether it actually is or not


What is a disputed confession

A confession that is later disputed at trial may arise because of legal technicalities or because of suspect disputes the confession was ever made


What is a voluntary false confessions and why might it arise?

A false confession that's provided without any elicitation from the police.
A morbid desire for notoriety, being unable to distinguish fact from fantasy, a desire to protect somebody else from harm, The need to make up for a pathological feeling of guilt by receiving punishment


What is a coerced compliant false confession and why might occur

A confession that results from a desire to escape a course of interrogation environment or gain a benefit promised by the police.
Most common
Escape further interrogation, gain a promised benefit, avoid a threatened punishment


What is a coerced internalized false confession and why might it happen

A confession that results from suggestive interrogation techniques whereby the confessor actually comes to believe that he or she has committed the crime.
Interference with brain function, inability to detect discrepancies, factors associated with mental state


What is compliance

A tendency to go along with demand made by people perceive to be in authority even though the person may not agree with them


What is internalization

The acceptance of guilt for an act even if the person didn't actually commit the act


What is confabulation

The reporting of events that never actually occurred


What is criminal profiling

An investigative techniques for identifying major personality and behavioral characteristics of an individual based on analysis of the crime here she has committed


What is the purpose of criminal profiling

To help set traps to flush out an offender, to determine whether a threatening note should be taken seriously, to give advice on how best to interrogate a suspect, to tell prosecutors how to break down defendants in cross-examination


What are some of the most common personality and behavioral characteristics that profilers try to predict

Offenders age, sex, race, level of intelligence, educational history, hobbies, Family background, residential location, criminal history, employment status, psychosexual development, post-offence behavior


What is the violent crime linkage analysis system and what is linkage blindness

An automated system for linking serial crimes. It prevents linkage blindness which is an inability on the part of the police to link geographically dispersed serial crimes committed by the same offender because of a lack of information sharing among police agencies


What is deductive criminal profiling

Profiling the background characteristics of an unknown offender based on evidence left at the crime scene by that particular offender. Largely relies on logical reasoning. Primary disadvantage is underlying logic of the argument can sometimes be faulty.


What is inductive criminal profiling

Profiling the background characteristics of an unknown offender based on what's known about other solved cases. Realize largely on a determination of how likely it is an offender will possess certain background characteristics given the prevalence of these characteristics among known offenders who have committed similar crimes. Major problem is sampling issues.


Examples of organized crime scene behaviors

Planned defence, use of restraints on victim, ante-mortem sexual acts, use of a vehicle in crime, no postmortem mutilation, corpse not taken, little evidence left at scene


Examples of this organize crime scene behaviors

Spontaneous offense, no restraints used on the victim, postmortem sexual acts committed, no use of the vehicle, corpse or body parts taken, evidence left at the scene


What are some organized background behaviors

High intelligence, skilled occupation, sexually adequate, lives with a partner, geographically mobile, lives and works far away from crime, follows crimes and media, maintains residence vehicle


Disorganized background behaviors

No intelligence unskilled occupation sexually inadequate lives alone geographically stable lives and works close to the crime little interest in media doesn't maintain residence and vehicle


What is a poly graph

A device for recording an individual automatic nervous system response breathing but heart rate


What is a comparison question test

Type of polygraph test that includes irrelevant questions that are unrelated to the crime relevant questions concerning the crime being investigated and comparison questions concerning the persons honesty and past history prior to the event being investigated. Used in Canada most common.


What is a concealed information test

Type of poly graph test designed to determine if the person knows details about a crime


Can the guilty person learned to be the poly graph

Countermeasures as applied to polygraph research techniques interviews to conceal felt polygraph not admissible in court


What are verbal cues for lying

Speech fillers speech errors pitch of voice rate of speech speech pauses


What are nonverbal cues to lying

Gaze aversion smiling blinking fidgeting illustrators hand and finger movements like a foot movements body movements shrugs had Newpence shifting positions


What is a factitious disorder

A disorder in which the person physical and psychological symptoms are intentionally produced and are adopted to assume the role of the sick person


What is Münchausen syndrome

A rare fictitious disorder in which a person intentionally produces a physical complaint and constantly seek physical consultation hospitalization and even surgery to treat the nonexistent illness


What is somatoform disorder

A disorder in which physical illness but have no known underlying physiological cause and symptoms aren't intentionally produced


What is malingering

Intentionally thinking psychological or physical symptoms for some type of external gain.