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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (25):
1

What is Psychology?

Definition: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
Psychology qualifies as a science because its methods of research use the scientific method.
Research is based on Data.

2

Goals of Psychology

To improve the human condition.

3

Naturalistic Observation

Observing behavior or recording behavior in a natural setting without influencing it.
Gain an understanding of how people are behaving naturally.
Disadvantages:
Can take time
Can loose control of the variables
Observer BIas (The observer sees what they want to see)

4

A Case Study

An in-depth study of typically a single individual.
Advantages are an in-depth understanding of a particular case.
Disadvantages
You can not generalize your findings.

5

Survey Research

Questions on paper or computer
Quick, easy and cheap.
Disadvantages
can often get inaccurate information

6

Experimental Method and Components

Hypothesis (The Question)
The Variables
Experimental group
The group that gets an added factor/treatment (The group that got the money)
Control group
The group that does not revive anything
Independent Variable
The variable that is placed on the experimental group (The addition of a reinforcement)
Dependent Variable
Results of the experiment (the number of words remembered)
Confounding Variable
A variable we did not expect that influences our results.
Random Selection
Random sampling to generalize results.

7

Advantages and Limitations of Experimental Research.

Problems that can come up with experimental design
We can now talk about the cause and effect which we could not do in the descriptive method.
Disadvantages:
Confounding Variables

8

Advantages and Limitations of Each Descriptive Research Method.

Naturalistic Observation
Observing behavior or recording behavior in a natural setting without influencing it.
Gain an understanding of how people are behaving naturally.
Disadvantages:
Can take time
Can loose control of the variables
Observer BIas (The observer sees what they want to see)
A Case Study
An in-depth study of typically a single individual.
Advantages are an in-depth understanding of a particular case.
Disadvantages
You can not generalize your findings.
Survey Research
Questions on paper or computer
Quick, easy and cheap.
Disadvantages
can often get inaccurate information

9

Gestalt Psychology

Primary Belief: The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

10

Behaviorism

We behave according to receiving rewards seeking out reinforcement and avoiding punishment.
We also behave by avoiding things that cause us pain.

11

Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud
Human behavior is motivated by unconscious conflicts or mental forces.

12

Humanistic Psychology

Believes human behavior is motivated by choice, rational thinking, responsibility, and the natural pursuit of psychological health,
Certain things block us from achieving this well-being.

13

Cognitive Psychology

Thought processes, the following: Memory, problem solving, concept formation, reasoning, decision making, and language.

14

Systems Theories

Believes that human behavior depends on a systems. Eg. society, family, culture.

15

Types of Experimental Research

Correlational Studies
When you study a relationship between two different things.
Positive and Negative
Cannot talk about cause and effect with correlation.
Meta-analysis
When a researcher studies other studies/research.
Comes to a conclusion of the research.

16

Dendrites

receive information from the presynaptic neuron.
receives neurotransmitter substance.

17

Nucleus

The production center of the cell. Metabolic Area.
helps to produce neurotransmitter substance

18

Soma

Cell Body (Can still receive transmitters)

19

Myelin Sheath

Fatty substance surrounding most Axons
Responsible for the speed of the impulse

20

Axon

Where the neuro-firing takes place, electrical charge travels down the Axon.

21

Axon terminal

Branches on the tale of the neuron

22

Terminal buttons

Where the neurotransmitter is released

23

Resting potential

When a neuron is at rest.

24

Glutamate

Primary excitatory neurotransmitter.

25

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter involved with mood.