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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (49)
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1

Takes the form of test pits or trenches placed across a site to expose the stratigraphy and artifact contents of a site; can identify stratified layers of soil

Vertical excavation

2

What does stratigraphy tell us?

How the site was formed and how materials accumulated

3

Expose large areas of the ground; recover information about site arrangement and structure

Horizontal excavation

4

Dating based on relations between materials; sequencing things

Relative dating

5

Method of assigning archaeological dates in calendar years so that an age in actual number of years is known or can be estimated

Absolute dating

6

Using tree rings to find out the date when the tree was alive

Dendrochronology

7

Finding carbon 14 and potassium argon to date things

Radioactive isotopes

8

Tracks magnetism in materials for magnetic orientation of the planet

Paleomagnetic

9

Deal with the period of humans on the planet

Archaeological chronology (-lithic periods)

10

Deal with the entire history of earth and distinguish a series of eras and epochs

Geological chronology (-cene periods)

11

What is the evidence for bipedalism?

Upright posture, s-curve, lack of opposable toe, special legs

12

Where did Australopithecus Afarensis originate from?

East Africa, Laetoli, Hadar

13

Fully bipedal, ape/human like, long arms and curved fingers, still adapted for climbing, most famous specimen was Lucy

Australopithecus Afarensis

14

How long did Australopithecus Afarensis last?

Pliocene, 4.2-2.8 may

15

Why is Laetoli important?

Proves that A. Afarensis was fully bipedal, had preserved footprints in volcanic ash

16

How long did Homo Habilis last?

Pleistocene, 2.5-1.6 mya

17

What is significant about the lower paleolithic?

First stone tool traditions, evidence for control of fire, cold weather adaptations

18

What tool traditions are associated with the Lower Paleolithic?

Oldowan, Archeulean

19

Oldest direct ancestor, flatter face and larger brain, known for the first stone tool adaptation(Oldowan), first genus of Homo

Homo habilis

20

Very crude flake and core technology

Oldowan

21

Used the Archeulean tool tradition, modern looking below the neck, potential for first controlled use of fire, widespread species

Homo Erectus

22

Generally a flake and core tradition, use of bone and antler, known for handaxes

Archeulean tool tradition

23

Where was Homo erectus found?

Asia, Africa (widespread)

24

What is significant about the Middle Paleolithic?

Mousterian tool tradition, first intentional burials, last time more than 1 species of hominid lived at the same time

25

What tool tradition is associated with the Middle Paleolithic?

Mousterian

26

When was Homo neandertalensis discovered?

Middle Paleolithic

27

Where was Homo neandertalensis?

All over

28

Large brained human, short and stocky, occipital bun, brow ridges, robust

Homo neandethalensis

29

What kind of culture did neanderthals have?

Mousterian tool tradition, intentional burials, hunting, lived in caves

30

When did Homo sapiens appear?

Upper Paleolithic