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What is social stratification?

it refers to the way in which society is organized in layers or strata. (Hierarchy of social position)--Canada is one of the world's most prosperous countries


What is income quintile share?

Measures the share of total income earned by each income-ranked fifth of the population.


What does the Gini coefficient show/describe?

how much inequality there is. Eg. High gini= more inequality.
0= same income
1= complete inequality


What are the factors for economic success?

1. Degree of natural talent
2. Degree of effort
3. Level of Education
4. Social Capital
5. Cultural capital


What is Human Capital?

the sum of useful skills and knowledge that an individual possesses


What is social capital?

life experiences, manners, cultural norms etc


What are some key components that determines wealth?

inheritance, and business acumen


Wealth inequality in _________ is even more _______than ________ inequality

Canada, severe, income


What is absolute poverty compared to relative poverty?

Absolute poverty is when you just have enough money and resources to live whereas relative poverty is in comparison to your neighbours and others.


What debates are happening involving poverty?

-Whether the definition should be in absolute or relative terms
- Whether poverty should be defined based on income or consumption


What is the Low-income cut-off?

Stats Canada definition where the family devotes at least 20% more of its income to the necessities than the average family would


What are 3 myths about the poor?

1. People are poor because they do not want to work
2. Most poor people are immigrants
3. Most poor people are trapped in poverty


What are the 2 different types of explanations about poverty?

-Individual-level explanation: focuses on the attributes of the poor
-Structural explanations: focuses on the economic organization, social policy and ideology


What is progressive taxing?

Taxing the rich people more to help bridge the gap for the poor people


What is regressive taxing?

When everyone pays 10% (or whatever percent) of their income


What are some examples of social policy affecting poverty?

-Minimum wage legislation os a social policy that creates a group of working poor
-system of tax collection and tax allocation


How can you reduce your tax amount?

savings bonds
tax free saving account


What is structural ideology?

basically discrimination
- negative images of various groups lead to an undervaluing of the ways of life of some people--discrimination follows from undervaluation
- Discrimination causes poverty because it leads to less success in finding good jobs


What is feudalism?

A legal arrangement in preindustrial Europe that bound peasants to the land and obliged them to give their landlords a set part of the harvest
--The landlords were required to protect peasants from marauders and feed them if the crop failed


What was Marx's conflict perspective? What happened during this movement?

-the most important part was the growth of exploration and trade
-Peasants were forced off the land and had to work in the urban area
- the working class grew larger and more impoverished
- wages were low and didn't care about working conditions


What is Class?

In Marx's sense of the term, class is determined by a person's relationship to the means of production. This lead to a communist system


Who are the bourgeoisie?

Members of the capitalist class and are OWNERS of the means of production including factories, tools, land, and money. They don't do any physical labour. SMALL part of society


Who are the proletariat?



What does the petit bourgeoisie do?

OWN means of production but only employ a few workers or none at all. Probably disappear because they are economically inefficient. Private ownership of property


What are some of Marx's critiques?

1. Industrial societies did not polarize into two opposed classes engaged in bitter conflict
2. investing in technology made it possible to make more money
3. Communism took root
4. Planned obsolescence


What was Weber's theory?

Class is a distributional concept and gradations in class are associated with an individual;s value in the marketplace


What are the 2 groups Weber created? What does each group consist of?

Status Groups: Differ from one another in terms of prestige or social honour they enjoy, and also in terms of their style of life. HIGH SOCIAL HONOUR AND HIGHLY REGARDED AND RESPECTED Eg. pope, mother Theresa, Nelson Mandela
Parties: ORGANIZATIONS that seek to impose their will on others (eg. Suzuki, political parties, LGBTQ
**these are not necessarily wealthy people


What is the functional theory of stratification?

1. Some ppl are more important that others are
2. People must make sacrifices to train for more important jobs. (if you want to get higher, you need to work more and that also increases your stress)
3. Inequality is motivation thus it is necessary


What are some critiques of fuctional theory of stratification?

-none of the jobs are "more important"
-ignores the undiscovered talent because of inequality
- doesn't take into consideration parents history


What is power?

Ability to impose one's will on others (despite of resitance)


What is authority?

Legitimate, institutionalized power that rests on moral consent (eg. Dr. Chai only in class and about tests)


What is social mobility?

the dynamics of the system of inequality and particularly the movement up and down the stratification system


What is intragenerational mobility (Occupational)?

social mobility that occurs within a single generation


What is intergenerational mobility (inheritance of social position)?

social mobility that occurs between generations (with your kids)


What are open societies?

You are more likely to rise or fall to a position that reflects your capabilities (you are able to move around)


What are closed/rigid societies?

You social origin determines where you are located in the hierarchy of inequality (where you are born into is where you stay--eg. India caste system


What is Social Economic Status?

Combines INCOME, EDUCATION, and occupational prestige data in a single index of a person's position in the socioeconomic hierarchy.


What does social mobility have to do with education?

Educational opportunities are now more numerous for everyone, but they are highly stratified and they therefore perpetuate inequalities rather than erasing them. (Less education, can't progress as much)


What is globalization?

occurs as people and institutions across the planet become increasingly AWARE of and DEPENDENT on ONE ANOTHER


What is imperialism?

ECONOMIC DOMINATION of one country by another.


Some ________________activists view globalization as a form of ____________.

anti-globalization, imperialism


What is the global commodity chain?

A worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity


What are the 3 sources of globalization?

1. Technology
2. Politics
3. Economics


What are ways transnational corporations differ from traditional corporations?

1. Depend increasingly on foreign labour and foreign production
2. emphasize skills and advances in design, technology, and management
3. Depend on world markets
4. Depend on massive advertising campaigns
5. autonomous from national governments.


What is homogenize?

when countries (or things) become more similar


What is McDonaldization?

A form of rationalization that refers to the spread of principles or fast food restaurants such as EFFICIENCY, PREDICTABILITY, CALCULABILITY to all spheres of life


What is Glocalization>

The simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization. Eg. McDonalds having different kinds of tea served compared to in canada


What is regionalization?

the division of the world into different and often competing in economic, political, and cultural areas


What is the modernization theory?

Holds that economic underdevelopment results from poor countries lacking western attributes.


What are some characteristics of a dysfunctional, poor society?

-lack of capital
- lack of rational, western-style business techniques
-lack of western-style stable government
- lack of western mentality


What is the dependency theory's CONFLICT approach?

The dependency theory is when it views economic underdevelopment as the result of EXPLOITATIVE relations between rich and poor countries.


What did the dependency theorists say about exploitation by direct political control that was soon replaced by new means of achieving the same end?

- Substantial foreign investment (extracting raw materials from places but they don't benefit much from it)
- Support for authoritarian governments (proxy countries)
- Mounting debt


What are core capitalist countries?

MAJOR sources of CAPITAL and TECHNOLOGY in the world


What is peripheral capitalist countries?

major sources of raw MATERIALS and CHEAP LABOUR. (alot of this)


What are semiperipheral capitalist countries?

former colonies that are making considerable PROGRESS in attempts to INDUSTRIALIZE (very few of this)


What are 4 ways to create a semiperipheral country?

1. Type of colonialism
2. Geopolitical position
3. State Policy
4. Social structure


What does Neoliberal globalization promote as a policy?

- private control of industry
- minimal government interference in the running of the economy
- removal of taxes, tariffs, and restrictive regulations that discourage international buying and selling of goods and services
- encouragement of foreign investment


Why would social scientists be skeptical of neoliberlism?

- world bank policies often disadvantage developing countries
- hasn't had successful development strategy in the early stages of industrialization


How does reforming Foreign Aid to Developing Countries help improve the situation of developing countries?

-Some foreign aid is presently delivered is not an effective way of helping the developing world
- Increasing the amount of foreign aid and redesigning its delivery can thus help mitigate some of the excesses of neoliberal globalization


Why would cancelling debts help developing countries develop?

if the rich wrote off the debt, the countries would able to prosper because the debt hinders them from developing.


Why would tariff reduction help developing countries develop?

eliminating or reducing tariffs would help the countries develop because they could earn money from exporting goods.


How does democratic globalization promote economic growth?

1. making it more difficult for the elite to misuse their power
2. Increasing political stability--thereby providing a better investment climate
3. giving rise to policies that are more responsive to people's needs and benefit a wide range of people from all social classes.