Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (63):
what is Race?
BIOLOGY (eg. skin colour) but is hard to determine race just on genetic differences
What is ethnicity?
social or cultural aspects
What is prejudice?
an ATTITUDE that judges a person according to his or her group's real or imagined characteristics. Preconceived ideas
What is Discrimination?
unfair TREATMENT of people because of their group membership. These are ACTIONS
What is race (in a ethnic group)?
one or more physical markers to distinguish people which impacts those people's lives. the use of cultural preferances as well--> the use of chopsticks or a fork
What is a scapegoat?
a DISADVANTAGED person or category of people that others blame for their own problems.
What is the circle of racism?
1. Physical markers create inequality and class
2. diff. social conditions create behavioural differences
3. Perceptions of behaviour different can create racial stereotypes.--> this reinforces the first point.
Perceptions of racial _______ are socially _________ and often arbitrary
What is an ethnic group?
comprised of people whose perceived cultural markers are deemed socially significant. (basically stereotypes of what makes a black person black for example)
What are some ways that ethnic groups differ from one another?
language, religion, customs, values, ancestors etc
True or false: Ethnicity and culture is learned.
What is the vertical mosaic?
A pyramid type organization of people with British people/ white people at the top (being the best) with the coloured people at the bottom (being the worst or a lower class)
Which time period in Canada was named "The vertical mosaic"?
mid-twentieth century Canada an ethically and racially stratifies "vertical mosaic".--> immigrants who arrived later enjoyed less power and privileged but by 1970s many minority members were economically successful
What does the Canadian multicultural policy focus on now?
focuses less on cultural pluralism than on incorporating immigrants into the larger society. it emphasizes TOLERANCE of ethnic and racial differences
Racial and ______ inequality is more deeply rooted in ______ structure than in biology and culture
The biological and cultural aspects of race and ethnicity are secondary to their sociological character when it comes to explaining inequality.
What factors continually reshape a person's racial and ethnic identity?
Social contexts, and in particular the nature of the relations with members of other racial and ethnic groups.
What do symbolic interactionists see racial and ethnic labels as?
the development of racial and ethnic labels, as well as ethnic and racial identities, is typically a process of NEGOTIATION
Can people choose their race and ethnicity based on the social construction?
nope, but there are many variations in degree over time and from one society to the next to which people can exercise this freedom of choice. This also varies on the actual category of people
What is symbolic ethnicity?
nostalgic allegiance to the culture of the immigrant generation, or that of the old country, that is not usually incorporated in everyday behaviour.
Which group do people have the most freedom of choice when it comes to ethnic and racial choices?
White European Canadian
what is racism?
is the belief that visible characteristics of a group such as skin colour indicated group inferiority and justifies discrimination
What is institutional racism?
occurs where organizational policies and practices systematically discriminate against people of colour. WHITE PRIVILEGE
What is internal colonialism?
involves one race or ethnic group subjugating another in the same country.
What does internal colonialism prevent?
prevents assimilation by segregating the colonized in term of jobs, housing and social contacts.
What word best describes the treatment of Canada's Aboriginal peoples by European immigrants in the 19th century?
The Europeans thought that they were assimilating the aboriginal people, but now we call it________
Cultural genocide: it obliterated their heritage
What is genocide?
the international extermination of an entire population defined as a race or a people
What does the second form of internal colonialism consist of? What is it?
conquest. This involves the forcible capture of land and the economic and political domination of its inhabitants
What are 2/4 issues did Quebec fail to resolve?
1. potential demographic decline of the Quebecois
2. assimilation of immigrants into English culture
3. persistent ethnic stratification
4. continued use of English as the language of private industry
African Canadians are subject to the ___ form of internal colonialism: ________
3rd , slavery
Until the middle of the 20th century, African Canadians tended to do unskilled labour and be residentially and socially segregated
What is the Theory of split labour market?
holds that where low-wage workers of one race high-wage workers of another race compete for the same jobs, high-wage workers are likely to resent the presence of low-wage competitors, and conflict is bound to result (racist attitudes develop or are reinforced)
--MacDonalds not hiring white people (only immigrants because they are more responsible)
What are some advantages of Ethnicity in a new place?
1. Economic advantages
2. Political usefulness
3. Ability to provide emotional support
What are transnational communities?
communities whose boundaries extend among countries.
What has made retaining ties easier?
inexpensive travel and communication
What are the 3 economic sectors?
1. Primary (AGRICULTURE)
2. Secondary (MANUFACTURING)
3. Tertiary (SERVICE)
What is the definition of economy?
the institution that organizes the production, distribution and exchange of goods and services
What were the 3 economic revolutions?
1. Agricultural revolutions
2. The industrial revolution
--Manufacturing the dominant economic sector
3. The post-industrial revolution
--automation of work
--service-dominant economic sector
What is productivity?
Amount produced for every hour worked
what is the definition of markets?
social relations that regulate exchange of goods and services
What is the division of labour?
specialization of work tasks--> The more specialized the work tasks in a society, the greater the division of labour
What is deskilling?
the process by which work tasks are broken into simple routines requiring little training to perform (don't need to go to school or to have practice in that area)
Deskilling is usually accompanied by the use of ________ to replace _____wherever possible and ______ management control over workers
machinery, labour, increase
What did Henry Ford create in 1910?
the assembly line to produce affordable cars for the mass market
What is Fordism?
Method of industrial management based on assembly-line methods of producing inexpensive, uniform commodities in high volume.
what is Scientific management and who developed it?
Developed by Frederick Taylor.
-It was a system and a goal to make everything as efficient as possible. A system for IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY
AKA Taylorism or the Efficience master!!!
The rise of a more _______-intesive economy and the ____ of the ______ class has had a big impact of the ______ relations of work
knowledge, rise, managerial, social---> results in a new middle class with greater power to make decisions about what is to be done and how to do it--> managers
What is the definition of labour market segmentation?
The division of the market for labour into distinct settings: primary and secondary
--work is found in different ways and workers have different characteristics
--being hired and fired
Are primary labour market jobs "good " jobs or "bad" jobs?
Good jobs--> high skill, well-educated white males, high levels of investment. employment is secure
What are some characteristics of a secondary labour market job?
-large numbers of women and members of ethnic minorities, particularly recent immigrants
- tend to be unskilled and lack higher education
-employment is insecure and earnings are low and fringe benefits are meagre
How to workers show resistance?
-going on strike
- not coming to work
-sabotaging production lines etc
What did the human relations school of management advocate in regards to worker resistance?
-less authoritarian leadership
-careful selection and training of personnel
- more attention on job needs and employee satisfaction
What is involved in the quality of work life movement?
A reform that gives workers more authority on the shop floor--->includes quality circles (more in another slide)
What are quality circles?
small groups with workers and managers collaborating to improve the quality of goods produced and communication between workers and managers
What is codetermination?
Reforms that allow workers to help formulate overall business strategy
What are unions? Are they increasing or decreasing?
organizations of workers that seek to defend and promote their member's interests. They are decreasing
What is internal labour markets?
Social mechanisms for CONTROLLING pay rates, hiring, and promotions withing corporations while reducing competition between firm's workers and external labour supplies
What are some barriers between the primary and secondary labour markets? (3)
1. few entry-level positions in the primary labour market (need a prerequisite)
2. Workers don't know people with high jobs in order for them to get a high job
3. lack the required training and certification for jobs in the primary labour market
Why do people work so much and have so little leisure time?
1. ppl are influenced by the DRIVE TO CONSUME (need financials for this)
2. executives want employees to work more hours
3. if not in a union, they aren't in the position to ask for more vacation time and less hours
What is a free market?
prices are determined by SUPPLY AND DEMAND
What happens in a regulated market?
various social forces limit the capacity of supply and demand to determine prices (supply and demand doesn't drive the market--interests of the cooporations)
What is captialism?
world's dominant economic system with private ownership of property and competiton in pursuit of profit
What is communism?
CLASSLESS society with public ownership of property and government planning (vs. supply and demand)