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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (95)
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1

Why study marine biology?

It is the study of plants, animals, and other organisms that live in the ocean. Marine life represents an enormous source of human wealth such as food, medicine, raw materials (algae) and recreation.

2

How can marine organisms create problems for humans?

Shellfish poisoning; ciguatera poisoning; shark attacks; erosion of structures we build (piers, sea walls), fouling of ship bottoms

3

Fundamentals of Marine Bio

Marine life helps determine the very nature of our planet
Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe (helps the earth's climate)
Shorelines are shaped and protected by marine life
- Calcium carbonate sand deposition
- kelp beds

4

How long ago did life appear in the ocean?

3.8 billion years ago

5

Animal and plant life?

Extant today, had ancestors that evolved 500 million yrs ago

6

How old is earth?

4.7 billion years old

7

Continental Drift

Supercontinent = Pangea: suggests that all the continents had once been joined
- Glomar Challenger 1960's
- sediment cores (more sediment further away from ridges)
- magnetic signature of crust

8

Plate Tectonics
Sea floor spreading?
Deep sea vents

Earth's crust divided into a number of irregular plates;
2-16 cm/yr
Thermophilic and chemotrophic bacteria

9

Currents

The major wind fields of the atmosphere push the sea surface creating currents

10

The marine environment is divided into zones according to (3 things)

distance from land; water depth; and whether the organisms are benthic or pelagic

11

Neritic

pelagic environment that lies over the shelf (also called the coastal zone)

12

Oceanic zone

Pelagic waters beyond (seaward) the shelf break

13

Epipelagic

shallowest zone, plenty of light for PS

14

Mesopelagic

not enough light for PS

15

Bathypelagic

no light

16

abyssopelagic;
hadopelagic

flat abyssal plain; trenches

17

Benthic

live on (epifauna) or buried in (infauna) the bottom
some are sessile (attached) some move around (mobile)

18

Pelagic

up in the water column
away from the bottom

19

Plankton move at the _

mercy of the currents

20

Phytoplankton

planktonic plants and other autotrophs are carried from place to place

21

zooplankton

animal plankton

22

Nekton

animals that can swim out of currents such as fish, marine mammals, squids, and large jellyfish

23

Water accounts for _% of the volume of most marine organisms;
Water provides _ and _ _ for

80-90;
buoyancy and body support for swimming and floating; reduced need for heavy skeletal structures

24

Properties of seawater

Water is a universal solvent
High heat capacity (slow change in temp)
Density temperature relationships (>4oC density increases with decreasing temperature)
<4oC density temperature pattern reverses
Increased viscosity (affects sinking)

25

Properties of seawater part 2

Heat capacity: In the sea heat is transferred from place to place by
convection (mixing)
subtle conduction (molecular exchange of heat, ie., photons impart energy to water molecules)

26

Light

Used by marine organisms for vision and PS (euphotic zone)

27

The _ of the _ _ is determined by how rapidly seawater _ _ and _ it to _ _.

depth; photic zone; absorbs light; converts; heat energy

28

Factors that diminish quantity/intensity of light available for PS activity include:

suspended sediments
concentrated plankton populations
clouds, dust, fog
angle of incident light/reflection
dissolved substances
season, time of day, latitude

29

Temperature

High heat capacity: limits marine temperatures to a much narrower range than land temperatures.

30

Density _ as temperature _ or salinity _.

increases; decreases; increases