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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (186):
1

undesired effects associated with a drug

side effects

2

What can result from drug interacting with multiple tissue types, multiple cellular targets, alteration in patients physiology and/or drug pharmacokinetics?

side effects

3

What can occur at standard or inappropriate doses, arise when other drugs are given concurrently, or occur as result of altered drug PK?

adverse reactions

4

drug concentration in the body that produces the desired effect in the animal with minimal or no signs of toxicity

therapeutic range

5

What are the 3 major drug factors that keep drugs in their therapeutic range?

route of administration, drug dose, dosage interval

6

What are the most common disease that impact drug PK?

liver disease, kidney disease, cardiovascular disease

7

What does cardiovascular disease do to blood flow to tissues?

alters it

8

More of what is distributed to the brain and heart in cardiovascular disease?

blood

9

Alterations in what impact drug in cardiovascular disease?

gastrointestinal, hepatic, and renal blood flow

10

Patients are often on what during cardiovascular disease?

multiple drugs

11

Decreased drug elimination happens during what disease?

kidney

12

What increases in kidney disease?

plasma drug concentrations and fluid retention

13

What potential interactions happens in kidney disease?

drug interactions

14

The liver is the primary site of what?

drug metabolism

15

What decreases in drug pharmacokinetics when aging occurs?

drug absorption, hepatic metabolism, renal excretion

16

What has the most significant impact on drug disposition when aging occurs?

reduced kidney function

17

Dose dependent drug reactions affect who?

all members of a species

18

Idiosyncratic drug reactions are what?

unpredictable

19

Idiosyncratic drug reactions affect who?

only small portion of treated animals

20

Idiosyncratic drug reactions may or may not do what?

affect multiple species

21

Idiosyncratic drug reactions are not what?

dose dependent

22

in idiosyncratic drug reactions, risk of reaction increases with what?

the dose

23

How do you treat idiosyncratic drug reactions?

drug withdrawal and drug avoidance

24

Periodic measurement of amount of drug in the blood

therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)

25

Reliability of TDM is dependent on what?

timing and number of blood samples collected

26

Reliability of TDM is appropriate for what?

sample collection and handling

27

What is the target of immunosuppressive drugs?

immune system

28

What is the goal of immunosuppressive drugs?

control disease without significant side effects

29

Which immune-mediated disease is most commonly used, short acting, intermediate acting, long acting, eliminated from the body very slowly?

glucocorticoids

30

What is used to either kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms?

antimicrobials

31

Which substances kill or inhibit growth of bacteria?

antibacterial

32

What drugs are divided into two groups based on their chemistry?

antifungal

33

What is the duration of anti fungal drugs?

weeks to months

34

What must you do with the patient when they're on anti fungal drugs?

monitored for side effects

35

What do anti fungal drugs do to the appetite?

decreases it

36

Which disease has nonspecific therapies and targeted therapies and symptomatic supportive care?

gastrointestinal disease

37

Which disease is treated with combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy?

neoplastic diseases (cancers)

38

Which drugs are subdivided into different groups and target tumor cells?

chemotherapy

39

What are the 3 classes of endoparasites?

nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes

40

What are some ectoparasites?

insects and ascrines

41

What do ectoparasiticides risk?

toxicity

42

What does the structures of the urinary system include?

paired kidneys, paired ureters, a single urinary bladder, and a single urethra

43

Within each kidney are millions of individual structures called what?

nephrons

44

What does the urinary system filter from blood?

waste

45

What does the urinary system help control?

system pH

46

What does the urinary system help produce?

blood

47

What does the urinary system help control?

blood pressure, blood volume, and system ion concentrations

48

What are some urinary system disorders?

UTI's, inflammation and irrigation of urinary tract, renal failure, urinary incontinence and uroliths

49

Bacterial infections of the urinary system may lead to what?

inflammation, pollakiuria, dysuria

50

What is pollakiuria?

increased frequency of urination

51

Urinary system disorders may result in what clinical signs?

inappropriate urination, inability to urinate, frequent urination, increased urination, or pain

52

What are antihypertensive drugs?

drugs that decrease hypertension

53

What do ACE inhibitors do?

block the conversion of angiotensin I and angiotensin II

54

What do calcium channel blockers do?

block the influx of calcium ions into the myocardial cells

55

What do direct-acting arteriole vasodilators do?

relax smooth muscles of blood vessels

56

What are side effects beta-adrenergic antagonists?

decreased blood pressure

57

What do alpha-adrenergic antagonists do?

block alpha-1 adrenergic receptors

58

What are some examples of ACE inhibitors?

enalapril, captopril, lisinopril, and benazepril

59

What are some examples of calcium-channel blockers?

amlodipine, verapamil, and diltiazem

60

What are some examples of direct-acting arteriole vasodilators?

hydrazine and minoxidil

61

What are some examples of beta-adrenergic antagonists?

propranolol

62

What is an example of alpha-adrenergic antagonists?

phenoxybenzamine and prazosin

63

What do diuretics increase?

the volume of urine excreted by the kidneys

64

What do diuretics promote the release of?

water from tissues

65

What do diuretics lower?

the fluid volume in tissues

66

What are diuretics used to decrease?

edema and lower blood pressure

67

What are some types of diuretics?

thiazides, loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and osmotics

68

What do thiazides act directly on?

the renal tubules to block sodium reabsorption

69

What do thiazides promote?

chloride ion excretion

70

What are some side effects of thiazides?

hypokalemia and cardiac dysfunction

71

What do loop diuretics influence?

the reabsorption action at the loop of henle

72

What are the side effects of loop diuretics?

electrolyte imbalances, especially hypokalemia

73

What do carbonic anhydrase inhibitors do?

block the action of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase

74

What are carbonic anhydrase inhibitors used for?

to decrease intraocular pressure with open-angle glaucoma

75

What do osmotic diuretics do?

increase the osmolality of the urine filtrate in the renal tubules

76

What are osmotic diuretics used for?

to prevent kidney failure and to decrease intracranial and intraocular pressure

77

What are some examples of ACE inhibitors?

enalaril and benazepril

78

What are some examples of calcium-channel blockers?

diltiazem and verapamil

79

What is an example of beta-blockers?

propanolol

80

What are some examples of alpha-adrenergic antagonists?

phenoxybenzamine and prazosin

81

What are uroliths?

abnormal mineral masses in the urinary system

82

What are some types of uroliths?

struvite, calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, urate, cystine, and mixed

83

Each type of urolith may be treated differently and may include what?

dietary management as well as drug treatment

84

Drug categories used to treat uroliths include what?

urinary acidifiers, urinary alkalinizers, and xanthine oxidase inhibitors

85

Urinary acidifiers are used clinically to produce what?

acid urine

86

What does acid urine do?

dissolves and helps prevent formation of struvite uroliths

87

What are some examples of urinary acidifiers?

methionine and ammonium chloride

88

Urinary alkalinizes are used clinically to treat what?

calcium oxalate, cystine, and ammonium urate uroliths

89

What is an example of urinary alkalinizers?

potassium citrate

90

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors decrease the production of what?

acid urine

91

What is urinary incontinence?

the loss of voluntary control of micturition

92

Urinary incontinence may be due to what?

neurologic disorders or non-neruologic disorders

93

What results from trauma to the spinal cord, tumors of the nervous system, or degeneration of the nervous system tracts?

neurologic disorders

94

What kind of disorder includes hormone responsive, stress, urge, ectopic ureter formation, or urinary bladder over-distention?

non-neurologic disorders

95

What are some drugs used to treat neurologically caused urinary incontinence?

Cholinergic agonists, Anticholinergics, Alpha-adrenergic antagonists, Estrogen, Testosterone, Alpha- and Beta-adrenergic agonists

96

Cholinergic agonists treat animals with damage to the nerves that control what?

relaxation of the urinary bladder

97

What do cholinergic agonists promote?

voiding of urine from the urinary bladder

98

What is an example of a cholinergic-agonist?

bethanechol

99

Anticholinergics treat urinary incontinence by promoting what?

urine retention in the urinary bladder

100

What are some examples or anticholinergics?

propantheline

101

Alpha-adrenergic antagonists decrease what?

the tone of internal urethral sphincters

102

Alpha-adrenergic antagonists are used to treat what?

over-distention of the urinary bladder

103

What are some examples of Alpha-adrenergic antagonists?

phenoxybenzamine and prazosin

104

Estrogen and Testosterone treat what?

hormone-responsive urinary incontinence

105

What is an example of estrogen?

diethylsilbestrol

106

What is an example of testosterone?

testosterone cypionate and testosterone propionate

107

Alpha and Beta-adrenergic agonists stimulate receptors which increases what?

urethral tone

108

What are some examples of Alpha- and Beta-adrenergic agonists?

phenylpropanolamine and ephedrine

109

Skeletal muscle relaxants treat what?

urge incontinence or urethral obstructions

110

What is an example of skeletal muscle relaxants?

dantrolene, aminopropazine, and diazepam

111

What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?

delivery of oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to various parts of the body

112

What does the cardiovascular system also transport?

waste products

113

What are the purposes of the cardiovascular system?

distribute metabolites and O2, collect wastes and CO2, thermoregulation, hormone distribution

114

What are the components of the cardiovascular system?

heart, arteries, veins and capillaries

115

Blood supplies body tissues with what?

oxygen, nutrients, and various chemicals

116

Blood transports what?

waste products

117

Blood cells also play an important role in what systems?

immune and endocrine

118

The electrical impulses of the heartbeat originate where?

the sinoatrial node (SA node)

119

Heart rate is controlled primary by what?

autonomic nervous system

120

Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system does what?

slows heart rate

121

Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system does what?

increases heart rate

122

What are the 3 major types of blood vessels?

arteries, veins, and capillaries

123

What is an artery?

a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

124

What is a vein?

low-pressure collecting system that returns blood to the heart

125

What are capillaries?

single-cell thick vessels that connect the arterial and venous systems

126

What is systole?

contraction of heart chambers

127

What is diastole?

relaxation of heart chambers

128

What is normal heart beat called?

normal sinus rhythm

129

Workload of the heart is divided into what?

preload and after load

130

What is preload?

volume of blood entering the right side of the heart

131

What is after load?

force needed to push blood out of the ventricles

132

If the heart is not working properly it can compensate by what 4 mechanisms?

1. increase heart rate
2. Increase stroke volume
3. Increase efficiency
4. Enlarge itself

133

Blood pressure flows how?

from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure

134

Blood pressure is determined by what?

heart rate, stroke volume, peripheral resistance

135

What is normal blood pressure considered to be?

130 to 180 mm or HG systolic and 60 to 95 mm of Hg diastolic

136

Blood pressure usually refers to what?

pressure in large arteries or the systemic circulation

137

Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of what?

systolic pressure over diastolic pressure

138

How is blood pressure measured?

millimeters of mercury (mmHg)

139

What is cardiac output?

the amount of blood that the heart pumps/min

140

How do you calculate cardiac output?

heart rate X stroke volume

141

What is congestive heart failure?

a syndrome that can occur with any disorder that damages or overworks the heart muscle

142

What are some conditions that lead to congestive heart failure?

cardiomyopathy, hypertension, valvular disease

143

What are cardiac arrhythmias?

a disruption in the cardiac rate or rhythm

144

What do arrhythmias interfere with?

the work of the heart and can disrupt cardiac output

145

What causes arrhythmias?

changes in rate, stimulation from an ectopic force, or by alterations in conduction of the muscle

146

Hypertension results in what?

prolonged force put on the vessels of the vascular system

147

Hypotension results in what?

tissues of the body not receiving sufficient amount of oxygenated blood

148

What are types of cardiovascular drugs?

1. Positive inotropic drugs
2. Negative inotropic drugs
3. Positive chronotropic drugs
4. Negative chronotropic drugs
5. Positive dromotropic drugs
6. Negative dromotropic drugs

149

What do positive inotropic drugs do?

increase the force of myocardial contraction

150

What do negative inotropic drugs do?

decrease the force of myocardial contraction

151

What do positive chronotropic drugs do?

increase heart rate

152

How do positive chronotropic drugs increase the heart rate?

by altering the rate of impulse formation at the SA node

153

What do negative chronotropic drugs do?

decrease the heart rate

154

How do negative chronoropic drugs decrease the heart rate?

by altering the rate of impulse formation at the SA node

155

What do positive dromotropic drugs do?

increase the conduction of electrical impulses

156

What do negative dromotropic drugs do?

decrease the conduction of electrical impulses

157

What are some positive inotropes?

1. cardiac glycosides
2. catecholamines
3. benzimidazoles-pyridazinones

158

What do cardiac glycosides do?

increase the strength of cardiac contractions, decrease the heart rate, have anti arrhythmic effect, and decrease signs of dyspnea

159

What are side effects of cardiac glycosides?

anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiac arrhythmias

160

What are some examples of cardiac glycosides?

digoxin and digitoxin

161

What do catecholamines do?

increase the force and rate of myocardial contraction, constrict peripheral blood vessels and increase blood glucose levels

162

What are some examples of catecholamines?

epinephrine, dopamine, dobutamine, and isoproterenol

163

What do benzimidazole-pyridazinones do?

increase force of contraction and cause widening of blood vessels

164

What are bezimidazole-pyridazinones used for?

treatments of CHF in dogs

165

What are side effects of benzimidazole-pyridazinones?

anorexia, lethargy, diarrhea, and dyspnea

166

What is an example of benzimidazole-pyridazinones?

pimobendan

167

What are anti arrhythmic drugs used for?

to correct variation in the normal beating of the heart

168

What are some types of anti arrhythmic drugs?

1. local anesthetics
2. membrane stabilizers
3. beta-adrenergic blockers
4. action potential prolongation drugs
5. calcium-channel blockers

169

What are vasodilators?

drugs used to dilate arteries and/or veins

170

What do vasodilators alleviate?

vessel constriction and improves cardiac output

171

What are some examples of vasodilators?

1. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
2. arteriole dilators
3. ventilators
4. combined vasodilators

172

What are calcium-channel blockers used to treat?

CHF and hypertension

173

What do calcium-channel blockers inhibit?

the movement of calcium through the myocardial cell membranes and vascular smooth muscle

174

What are side effects of calcium-channel blockers?

hypotension and anorexia

175

What do blood enhancing drugs affect?

RBC's and the production or quality of RBC's

176

What are examples of blood enhancing drugs?

iron and erythropoietin

177

What are the most common diseases that impact Pharmacokinetics?

liver, kidney, and cardiovascular disease

178

What does cardiovascular disease alter?

the distribution of blood flow to tissues

179

More blood is transferred to the brain and heart in what disease?

cardiovascular disease

180

What decreases in kidney disease?

drug elimination

181

What increases in kidney disease?

plasma drug concentration

182

The liver is the primary site for what?

drug metabolism

183

What are the structures of the GI tract?

oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine

184

Structures of the GI tract vary from what?

mono gastric animals with simple stomachs to ruminant animals with multi chambered forestomachs

185

What is mastication?

chewing

186

What is deglutition?

swallowing